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1 Join Hands to Create a Bright Future of Peace and Prosperity Address at the Opening Ceremony of the 5th World Peace Forum 16 July 2016, Beijing By Liu Yandong* Mid-summer is a season of lush exuberance. And it is especially so in my alma mater, Tsinghua University. It is a great pleasure to be back here for the Fifth World Peace Forum. Let me begin by extending congratulations on the opening of the Forum and warm regards to distinguished guests, experts and scholars from different parts of the world. The World Peace Forum is the first high-level, non-governmental international security forum hosted by China. Since its inception five years ago, Chinese and foreign participants have had in-depth discussions on major international security topics, shared ideas for future cooperation, and offered advice for long-term stability and security, thus contributing to world peace and security. The theme of this year s Forum, The Order of Common Security: Cooperation, Inclusiveness * Liu Yandong is China s Vice Premier. 1

2 and Open-access, is highly relevant to the reality and needs of today. Just two days ago, an appalling act of terror struck Nice, France, causing severe casualties. I just visited Nice two weeks ago and was deeply saddened by the tragic deaths of innocent civilians. We condemn the terrorist attack in the strongest possible term and extend our deep condolences to the families of the victims and our sympathy to the wounded. We hope there will be greater cooperation between China, France and the international community in combating both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism, the common enemy of human society. As an ancient Chinese saying goes, Tranquility enables all to live and thrive, while chaos allows no moment of peace for anyone. For thousands of years, the pursuit of peace has been the primary aspiration of mankind. History and reality tell us that the future and destiny of human society is determined by how countries engage with each other. In the world today, countries share more things in common than ever before, common development, shared interests, common challenges and joint governance. The human society has increasingly become an inter-connected community of shared future. That said, the world is not tranquil and mankind is troubled with various security challenges and threats. It remains a long and arduous task to maintain world peace and promote common development. Ours is an era that calls for win-win cooperation. Against the backdrop of globalization, countries are inter-dependent like never before with their interests deeply entwined. There are important opportunities such as the prevailing trend of peace and development, rapid advances in science and technology and 2

3 vibrant regional cooperation. There are also challenges posed by terrorism, climate change, and energy and resource security. No single country can monopolize the benefits of opportunities, nor stay immune to challenges. The only viable choice is to share opportunities and meet challenges together in the spirit of solidarity and through win-win cooperation. Ours is an era that calls for inclusive co-existence. Different political systems and development paths exist in parallel. Many ethnic groups and civilizations draw on each other s strength. Various political thoughts and social trends interact with and influence each other. All this form a picture of diversity. However, hegemonism and power politics manifest themselves from time to time. Lack of justice, equality and fairness is still prevalent in international relations, posing potential threats to world peace and security. It is only natural that things cannot be all the same. Different countries and civilizations need to uphold the spirit of inclusiveness, abandon arrogance and prejudice, and respect other countries choice of development path, model and concept. Only in this way can they live in harmony and jointly foster a sound environment of stability and development. Ours is an era that calls for openness and sharing. The deep impact of the international financial crisis continues to unfold. Protectionism and isolationism in various forms have resurfaced. Multilateral trade negotiations encountered continuous setbacks. World economic recovery is an uphill journey. Openness leads to progress while isolation backwardness. Reality calls on all parties to carry forward the spirit of openness when pursuing development, build a new system of an open economy, and accelerate regional cooperation and connectivity. This will help countries realize 3

4 integration through openness and development through integration, and achieve common progress and prosperity. In the face of these global challenges, President Xi Jinping has proposed an important initiative to build a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation and develop a community of shared future for mankind. This is a creative leap over the traditional theory on international relations and offers foresight and vision for the progress of human civilization. It contributes China s wisdom and proposal for coping with the complex and grim security threats and building a common security order. I hope we will uphold the spirit of cooperation, inclusiveness and openness, step up dialogue to enhance mutual trust and coordination, and jointly create a bright future of peace and prosperity. First, we need to build partnerships of equality and mutual trust. Partnership is vital for state-to-state relations just like friendship is for people-to-people relations. Those who work in unity of purpose can be partners. Those who seek common ground and shelve differences can also be partners. China respects countries right to independently choose their foreign policy. We maintain that a more inclusive and constructive partnership should be cultivated that has no imaginary enemy and does not target a third party. A new path of partnership but not alliance should be explored. Countries are all equal irrespective of size, strength and wealth. They shall abide by basic norms governing international relations with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter at the center, respect other countries sovereignty and territorial integrity, and refrain from interfering in others internal affairs. Countries need to uphold equal consultation in international affairs, enhance trust, and work for more democratic, law-based and rational 4

5 international relations. Second, we should stick to win-win cooperation to promote common development of all countries. Development holds the master key to maintaining peace and stability and resolving all kinds of security issues. Countries should concentrate on development, actively carry out practical cooperation in business and trade, energy and science and technology, and make great efforts to improve people s lives and narrow the wealth gap so that all peoples can better share in the fruits of development. Countries should establish the concept of win-win and all-win development and abandon the zero-sum mentality and winner-takes-all approach. While pursuing one s own interests, those of others should also be taken into account. And one s own development should be promoted in the context of common development. We must step up macro-economic policy coordination, push for reforms in global economic governance, uphold an open world economic system, and jointly respond to the risks and challenges in the world economy. Third, we should increase dialogue and consultation to strive for peace and security. Albert Einstein once said that peace is based on understanding and self-restraint, not on violence. If some of us indulge in the Cold-War mentality, believe in jungle law, and opt for a military-focused and confrontational approach, they will go against the trend of our times and only aggravate the security dilemma. China calls on all countries to follow the path of peaceful development, establish a security concept featuring common, comprehensive, cooperative, and sustainable security, and work hand in hand to create a fair and just security architecture by all and for all. We believe dialogue, consultation 5

6 and cooperation is the right way to resolve disagreements and address complex hotspot issues. Consensus should be built through dialogue and security strengthened through cooperation. Fourth, we should pursue sustainable development to ensure the preservation of a sound ecology for the world. There is only one Earth that mankind calls home. Countries, while exploiting and developing nature, should also preserve it and promote sustainable development and the all-round development of man. We should collaborate with one another to encourage scientific and technological innovation, make robust efforts to develop green, low-carbon, and circular economy, actively implement the Paris Agreement on climate change, and realize global sustainable development at a higher level. Developed countries should truly assume their historical responsibilities, honor their commitment on emission reduction, and help developing countries with climate change mitigation and adaptation. The competent government authorities, business associations, and NGOs in various countries should engage in international cooperation to protect the Earth, our shared home. Fifth, we should deepen people-to-people and cultural exchanges to encourage mutual learning among civilizations. State-to-state relations are based on amity between the peoples. There is a great diversity of histories, cultures, social systems, and development stages in our world. Exchanges and mutual learning between different civilizations offer peoples in different countries the chance to experience different cultures, draw on one another s wisdom, and find common ground. This gives us the lubricant for addressing differences and the impetus for growing mutual understanding and friendship. 6

7 Interactions and cooperation in the fields of education, science and technology, culture and health care also provide driving forces for the development of all countries and the world economy. We should deepen cooperation in people-to-people and cultural exchanges, make good use of various mechanisms of exchange and dialogue, and give full play to the role of the United Nations and relevant international and regional organizations, governments, think tanks, the media, and NGOS. Cultural interaction will connect hearts and minds and generate popular support and positive energy for the peaceful co-existence and common development of all countries. The aspiration for peace and development runs deep in the genes of the Chinese nation. To strive for the great renewal of the nation is the greatest dream of the Chinese people since modern times. Now, the Chinese economy is in the middle of a new transformation marked by a new normal of moderated growth speed, improved structure, and the rise of new drivers of growth. Only 40 years ago, China was still an agrarian country with large swathes of rural areas. Per capita GDP was less than US$200, and urbanization rate below 18%. Now, China is the world s second largest economy, with per capita GDP close to US$8,000 and 56% of the permanent residents living in cities. We have lifted over 600 million people out of poverty and contributed 70% to the global poverty-reduction endeavor. Within only decades, we have brought about enormous changes in national development and people s lives and reached a new historical starting point. That said, there are also growing pains and challenges in the process of transformation. The problems that developed countries had dealt with for centuries during their industrialization have 7

8 cropped up in China in only 40 years. We are confronted with serious problems of an extensive growth model and unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable development. We still have 55 million people living in poverty and 222 million Chinese are above the age of 60. As a society that has yet to achieve moderate prosperity, we face huge pressure in old-age care and social security. There remains a long way to go before we can realize modernization for the 1.3 billion Chinese people. The next five years will be decisive for China s efforts to build itself into a society of initial prosperity in all respects. We have laid out a new development plan and established the concept of innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development. We will make development the top priority and innovation the primary driving force and work hard to double the 2010 GDP and incomes of urban and rural residents by 2020 to deliver a better life for all Chinese people. China is a member of the international family and we need a peaceful and stable international environment to make the Chinese dream come true. At the same time, China s development will bring opportunities and benefits to countries around the world. Having suffered a great deal from the scourge of war, the Chinese people know full well the value of peace. An ancient Chinese saying tells us that you should not do unto others what you do not want others to do unto you. China will stay committed to peaceful development and deepen strategic mutual trust, business cooperation and peopleto-people and cultural exchanges with other countries to work for a community of shared future and interests for mankind. China is committed to the independent foreign policy of peace and steadfastly fulfills its international obligations. 8

9 China advocates and works towards the vision of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, plays a constructive role in the political settlement of global hotspot issues, engages in international cooperation in counter-terrorism, cyber security, climate change and other non-traditional security fields and actively participates in various international disaster rescue and relief efforts and humanitarian assistance. China has been conducting escort operations in the Gulf of Aden and waters off the coast of Somalia to safeguard important international shipping lanes. China is the biggest contributor of peacekeepers among the permanent members of the UN Security Council, having sent more than 30,000 peacekeepers on 29 peacekeeping operations. On 31 May, Shen Liangliang, a 29-year-old Chinese peacekeeper in Mali died in a terrorist attack on the UN camp. According to his parents, he had planned to come home for his betrothal at the end of his one-year stint. A young life was thus tragically lost so far away from home before he could tie the knot with the love of his life. He laid down his life for the cause of peace in Mali and Africa. Just six days ago, when intense armed conflicts erupted in Juba, the capital of South Sudan, Li Lei and Yang Shupeng, two young Chinese peacekeepers were killed in action, and another five Chinese soldiers were wounded. These touching stories are a testimony to the sacrifices and solemn commitment made by the Chinese people to uphold world peace. China follows a win-win strategy of opening-up and is doing all it can to contribute to world development. In 2015, China ranked No.1 in trade in goods. Its outbound investment totaled US$118 billion and the number of outbound tourists 9

10 reached 120 million. The Chinese economy contributed as much as 25% to world economic growth, serving as an anchor and stabilizer for world economic recovery. China will continue to work with various countries on the Belt and Road initiative, building a silk road that is green, healthy, hi-tech and peaceful, and promoting common development on the Eurasian continent. This September, China will host the G20 Summit in Hangzhou, aiming to make new contribution to world economic recovery and global economic governance. China stands for no confrontation, no conflict, friendly consultation and peaceful resolution in addressing tensions and disagreements. Since the 1960s, China has, through negotiation and consultation, delimited 20,000 kilometers of land boundary with 12 out of its 14 neighbors on land. This fully demonstrates China s sincerity for good-neighborliness and commitment to mutual benefit and marked a concrete contribution to stability in Asia and beyond. Recently, the arbitral tribunal on the South China Sea arbitration case brought by the Philippines issued its so-called final award, trying to negate China s territorial sovereignty and maritime entitlements in the South China Sea. The arbitral tribunal established at the unilateral request of the Aquino III government lacks legitimacy. Its conduct has been unlawful from the very beginning as it willfully expanded, overstepped and abused its mandate. Its so-called award is thus null and void. The Chinese government did not accept or participate in the arbitration case, still less would we recognize or enforce the so-called award. China will continue to observe the UN Charter and the basic norms governing international relations enshrined therein, and stay 10

11 committed to peacefully settling relevant disputes in the South China Sea through negotiation and consultation with countries directly concerned on the basis of respecting historical facts and in accordance with international law. China will continue to work with ASEAN countries to make the South China Sea a sea of peace, friendship and cooperation. China is actively advancing people-to-people exchanges with other countries to promote mutual learning and harmonious coexistence among civilizations. China has long been committed to promoting friendly exchanges with all countries and has established high-level people-to-people exchange mechanisms with countries and international and regional organizations including the US, Russia, the UK, France, the EU and Indonesia. As a participant and facilitator of these exchanges, I feel keenly that exchanges among civilizations and the sharing of thoughts and ideas have a subtle but powerful influence that can provide strong momentum for the growth of international relations and pursuit of common security. When the Ebola outbreak hit Africa in 2014, we responded swiftly and carried out the largest ever overseas health assistance since the founding of New China. Altogether, we provided RMB750 million in funds and materials and sent more than 1,000 health workers to Africa. In the face of difficulties, we extended a helping hand to the people in West Africa and worked closely with other countries. This success story in global health cooperation also showcased the great power of people-to-people exchanges. All in all, China will always be a contributor to world peace, facilitator of global development and proponent of a just and reasonable international order. We stand ready to make unremitting efforts and 11

12 greater contribution to lasting peace and prosperity of the world. The World Peace Forum has become an important Asian, even global forum for international security. I hope the Forum will build on its successful experience to cultivate a sound highlevel platform and play an important role in advancing friendship, deepening mutual trust, building consensus and promoting cooperation. I hope that during the Forum, you will have in-depth dialogue and communication, contribute ideas and suggestions and share with each other your insights for common security and development. The famous Chinese writer Ba Jin once said, hope is like a star which will shine through any cloud. The aspiration for peace is like the star of hope for mankind. It will cut through the dark clouds of turbulence and conflict and shine upon our beautiful world with full splendor. Let us stay true to the conviction of safeguarding world peace and promoting common development, uphold the spirit of cooperation, inclusiveness and opening-up and work together for a better future of lasting peace and common prosperity. 12

13 Keynote Speech At the Lunch Meeting of the 5th World Peace Forum 16 July 2016, Beijing By Zhang Yesui* It gives me great pleasure to be back at the World Peace Forum. I am happy to see that, since its establishment five years ago, the Forum has grown into an influential international security forum. The world is living through major transformation like never before. On the one hand, peace, development, cooperation and win-win progress are the predominant trend of our time. Never before in human history have countries been so interconnected. Global cooperation is expanding in all dimensions and on all levels. On the other hand, peace and development are under assault from a host of new threats and challenges, and certain new developments in international security merit our close attention. Let me specify: Regional turbulence and hot-spots are generating greater concern and casting a shadow over regional peace and stability. They have set off a massive flow of refugees and other humanitarian issues. * Zhang Yesui is Executive Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. 13

14 Global growth is anemic, resulting in greater economic difficulty and social tension in some countries, and the rise and spread of populist, protectionist and xenophobic sentiments. Terrorism and extremism are fanning out to all corners of the globe. Religious radicalism is being rapidly transmitted through the Internet. Terrorist activities have become more rampant and destructive in many places, posing a grave danger. China strongly condemns the terrorist attack in the French city of Nice. We mourn for the lost lives and express sincere sympathy to the injured and the bereaved families. China has also suffered from terrorism. We stand ready to work with France and the rest of the international community to strengthen counter-terrorism cooperation and jointly protect the safety of people around the globe and uphold world peace and stability. Last but not least, climate change, cyber security and public health security and other issues have become transnational, interconnected and unpredictable. In the face of these profound changes in the global landscape and a wider array of complex threats, we must heed the call of Chinese President Xi Jinping to embrace a new concept of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security. With their interests intertwined and security shared, countries must realize that they are increasingly part of a community of shared future. It is time to bury the Cold War mentality and such outdated concepts as zero-sum game, for those that can neither bring security to individual nations nor usher in lasting peace and security in the world. 14

15 A society can only enjoy harmony if all its members are treated as equals; the world will only be stable if all countries are treated as equals. In China s view, all countries are equal members of the international community irrespective of their size, strength and wealth. They all have the right to equal participation in international and regional security affairs. We must respect all countries sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity as well as their independently chosen social system and development path. Interference in other countries internal affairs and imposition of regime change under the pretext of protecting human rights, instead of securing peace, will only aggravate humanitarian disasters, tensions and conflicts. Only by treating each other with respect and as equals can tensions and frictions be resolved and peace and security be consolidated. History is filled with examples of conflict and confrontation between emerging and established powers. Today, however, given the development of human society and the breadth and depth of their interdependence and convergence of interests, no country could afford the cost of confrontation or conflict. With a commitment to no conflict and no confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation, we stand a good chance of avoiding the Thucydides trap and building a new model of peaceful interaction between emerging and established powers. Development is the bedrock of security. Peace, like a tree, needs fertile land to grow. We need to enhance macroeconomic policy coordination, firmly advance trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, unequivocally oppose protectionism and build a more equitable, just and open global economy. When formulating macroeconomic policies, major economies must 15

16 consider the potential spillover effect as well as their own interests. We need to bolster the independent development capacity of developing countries and establish a new type of global partnership for development featuring greater equality and balance, so that the fruits of development will reach all nations. Faced with complex security challenges, it is imperative to build up international and regional security mechanisms. The central role of the United Nations and its Security Council in upholding international security must be fully leveraged to enhance conflict prevention capabilities and seek peaceful settlement of disputes. We need to discuss the forging of new architectures for regional security cooperation based on the conditions of each region, guided by the principles of incremental progress, consensus building and sensitivity to each other s comfort level. These regional architectures can serve as safeguards and safety valves for international and regional security. China follows an independent foreign policy of peace and a path of peaceful development. We have been working hard to maintain, build and contribute to international and regional security. We are a champion and practitioner of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence. We do not interfere in others internal affairs or seek hegemony, expansion and sphere of influence. We both firmly uphold our sovereignty, security and development interests, and fully respect and accommodate other countries legitimate concerns and lawful interests. We are committed to building a new type of international relations underpinned by win-win cooperation. Committed to peaceful resolution of disputes and frictions through negotiations, China has settled boundary issues with 12 of its 16

17 14 land neighbors and delimitation of the Beibu Gulf with Vietnam. China is a staunch force for international order underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. As a permanent member of the Security Council, China takes an active part in UN peacekeeping missions and is the largest peacekeeper contributor among the P5. China is committed to protecting international sea lanes with the rest of the international community. Since 2009, the Chinese navy has deployed 70 vessels in 23 groups to the Gulf of Aden and waters off the Somalia coast, providing escort services for over 6,000 Chinese and foreign vessels. As the country develops, China will offer more public goods for international peace and security. The Belt and Road Initiative, a blueprint full of oriental wisdom, is proposed by China to advance common prosperity and development in the world. It is an innovation aimed at promoting common security through common development. The Initiative has been warmly received by countries along the routes. China has signed Belt and Road cooperation agreements with over 30 countries and production capacity cooperation agreements with more than 20 countries. To date, 46 overseas cooperation zones have been jointly established by China and 17 countries along the routes, with more than US$14 billion invested by Chinese companies and 60,000 jobs created for local communities. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank is up and running, and the Silk Road Fund and China-Eurasia Economic Cooperation Fund have been set up. Last year, twoway trade between China and Belt and Road countries exceeded US$1 trillion. As the development of the Belt and Road gets to an advanced stage, we will continue to follow the principle of wide consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, synergize the 17

18 Initiative and the development strategies of countries along the routes, deepen cooperation in such priority areas as connectivity, production capacity and people-to-people exchange, and promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, so that the initiative will deliver more benefits to the people of various countries and inject strong impetus to peace and prosperity on the Eurasian continent and beyond. China firmly opposes terrorism in all its manifestations and maintains that a holistic counter-terrorism approach is needed to address both the symptoms and root causes. China opposes double standards and the practice of associating terrorism with specific country, ethnic group or religion. Fighting the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) and other East Turkestan forces is part and parcel of the international counter-terrorism campaign. We supported the central role of the UN and its Security Council in international counter-terrorism cooperation, and have taken an active part in counter-terrorism exchange and cooperation in the frameworks of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, APEC, BRICS, the ASEAN Regional Forum and the Global Counterterrorism Forum. China will host an international symposium on combating cyber terrorism in the coming October in Beijing. China will work with other countries to enhance cyber security dialogue and cooperation, facilitate the formulation of international cyber space rules acceptable to all parties, work out an international cyber space counter-terrorism convention, and improve the judicial assistance mechanism for combating cyber crimes, all in a joint effort to maintain peace and security in cyber space. 18 Since the beginning of this year, the Korean Peninsula has

19 witnessed continuous tension. We are committed to denuclearization, peace and stability of the Peninsula and a settlement through dialogue and consultation. As a permanent member of the Security Council, China has implemented the relevant Security Council resolutions in their entirety and honored its international responsibilities and obligations. China has proposed a parallel approach of denuclearizing the Peninsula and replacing the armistice treaty with a peace mechanism. It reaffirms the overarching goal of denuclearization and helps resolve the parties concerns in a reasonable and balanced way, thus encouraging the parties to meet each other half way. We will explore with other parties possible pathways and steps to deliver this approach in a bid to contribute to efforts of properly resolving the Korean nuclear issue and maintaining peace and stability of Northeast Asia. It takes the concerted efforts of all to maintain peace and stability in the region. The deployment of the THAAD system by the US and the ROK runs counter to the efforts to realize denuclearization and maintain peace and stability on the Peninsula. With a coverage and capability far beyond what is actually needed, the system hurts the strategic and security interests of China and other countries in the region. It will upset regional strategic balance and escalate arms race, and have serious repercussions for global strategic balance and stability. We strongly urge the US and the ROK to stop the deployment of the THAAD system and refrain from taking actions that will complicate regional situation. Just a few days ago, the arbitral tribunal constituted at the unilateral request of the previous Philippine administration issued a so-called award. In view of this, the Chinese government publicized a set of important documents to reaffirm our consistent position of 19

20 non-acceptance and non-recognition of the award. The South China Sea arbitration instituted by the Philippines is nothing but a typical example of a case fraught with political prejudices. The arbitration was politically motivated, carefully packaged and unilaterally initiated. The tribunal was politically driven and assembled on a temporary basis. And the award was elaborately concocted with political aims. It can be said with certainty that the arbitration is, in every sense, complete political manipulation. It is an attempt aimed not to settle the disputes between China and the Philippines or to uphold peace and stability in the South China Sea. Such an act violates the rule of law and tramples on international law and the norms governing international relations. It sets a dangerous and egregious precedent, which must be guarded against by the international community. The tribunal s ultra vires act and its illegitimate ruling are extremely dangerous. The award, which is riddled with errors on procedures, law, evidence and facts, is void of impartiality and credibility and has no binding force. It has undermined the integrity and authority of UNCLOS, shaken the confidence of countries in third-party arbitration mechanisms, eroded the very basis of modern international law and international order, and undercut regional peace and stability. China s territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests will not be affected by the award in any way. China opposes and will never accept any claim or action arising from this award. Still less will China conduct negotiation with any country on the basis of this illegal award. No individual, country or organization shall succeed in using the award to pressure China or undermine China s firm resolve 20

21 to safeguard its sovereignty and rights as well as international equity and justice. Such a firm position of China is both for the sake of protecting its own rights and interests, and aimed to uphold international rule of law, equity and justice, and the authority and integrity of UNCLOS. Negotiation and consultation is the only way out for the resolution of the South China Sea issue. Being the largest littoral country of the South China Sea, China will, acting on the larger interest of peace and stability in the South China Sea and the fundamental interests of all countries in the region, work with relevant countries, including the Philippines, to resolve the disputes through negotiation and consultation on the basis of respecting historical facts and in accordance with international law. We are ready to join efforts with ASEAN countries to promote the full and effective implementation of the DOC, take forward the consultations on the Code of Conduct and step up maritime cooperation including joint development, with a view to making the South China Sea a sea of peace, friendship and cooperation. We hope non-littoral countries could play a positive and constructive role by supporting the resolution of relevant disputes through direct negotiations and the joint efforts by China and ASEAN countries to maintain peace and stability in the South China Sea. 21

22 Champion the Idea of a Community of Common Destiny and Build a Bright Future of World Peace and Security Speech at the Evening Reception of the 5th World Peace Forum 16 July 2016, Beijing By Sun Jianguo* Today, peace, development and win-win cooperation have become the overriding theme of the times, and the world is increasingly growing into a community of common destiny in which the interests of one country are intertwined with those of others. However, this world is by no means trouble-free, since hegemony, power politics and zero-sum gaming have yet to become history, and global challenges like wars and conflicts, terrorism and climate change are emerging in an endless stream. There remains a vast gap between the reality and mankind s ideal of maintaining world peace for common development. In view of such a situation, President Xi Jinping stressed the important idea of a community of common destiny for all mankind. This idea, which encapsulates the wisdom of mankind * Sun Jianguo is deputy chief of the Joint Staff Department of the Central Military Commission and Chairman of China Institute for International Strategic Studies (CIISS). 22

23 and echoes the Zeitgeist, has extensive and profound theoretical significance, is based on a wide range of effective practices, and enjoys a broad prospect of sustainable development. It represents China s contribution of its wisdom and strategy with respect to momentous issues like global governance and international security, on which the world s future depends. At present, the international community is working hard towards the establishment of a just and reasonable order of common security and actively advocating the concepts of cooperation, inclusiveness and open access, which are in a high degree of accord with the principle of building a community of common destiny for mankind. I. We should promote international cooperation with a broader and more farsighted vision. Sincere cooperation and mutual benefit are always a fundamental way to maintain world peace as well as great objectives pursued by all the peaceloving forces in the world. The idea of a community of common destiny for all mankind advocated by China, which involves the substitution of cooperation for confrontation and that of win-win cooperation for monopoly, is exactly a response to the pursuit of mankind that befits the times. Nowadays, the increasingly close ties between countries and the ever growing need for common progress have urged us to deepen our understanding of and reflections on how to enhance cooperation. First of all, the advocacy of cooperation should be a rule of survival in the current times. Throughout history, cooperation between one state and another has usually been an expedient or a strategic necessity resulting from antagonism between one of them and a third party. Nowadays, with the deepening of 23

24 economic globalization, the steady advance in the application of IT to society, the fusion of the interests of different countries, and the complicated entanglement of security threats, cooperation is the only way to protect us from security threats and achieve common development. Enhancing international cooperation can no longer be any state s means of self-interest or opportunist option. Instead, it should be a somewhat mandatory rule of survival and requirement of the times. Secondly, promoting cooperation calls for strategic initiative on the part of the great powers in the world. Marx and Engels made the profound observation that communication between civilizations is a constant process towards greater initiative. Lasting peace has to be achieved through international cooperation. To attain this goal requires strengthening all countries strategic initiative to promote it. In this process, the will and action of great powers will make other countries follow the lead. At present, China is seeking further progress in building a new model of major-country relationship with the United States featuring no conflict or confrontation, mutual respect, and win-win cooperation, making steady efforts to deepen the strategic partnership with Russia in all aspects, and striving to build a partnership of peace, growth, reform and civilization with Europe. At a new starting point, all great powers, rising power and established power alike, with a higher level of strategic initiative, should continue to expand result-oriented cooperation, and work jointly to deal with threats and challenges. This is not only a unique historical obligation to be taken on by great powers, but also an inevitable choice that would serve their interests and meet the needs of the times. 24

25 Thirdly, deepening cooperation calls for abandoning the pursuit of monopoly. Sincere cooperation would be impossible without the willingness of the parties involved to meet each other halfway. While pursuing its own interests, any country must consider other countries concerns and may even need to make compromises or sacrifices on certain issues. As early as the 1950s, the Chinese government proposed the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, essentially as an objection to the bullying of weak countries by powerful ones, which might advance their interests at the expense of the former. This idea, which is rooted in the Chinese nation s traditional advocacy of universal love and opposition to war, represents a call for justice from China, a country that struggled in untold misery for 100 years. At present, the Chinese government is advocating the idea of a community of common destiny for mankind, and emphasizing the need to build partnerships of equality, negotiation and mutual understanding. As the latest evolution from the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, this idea has become a fundamental principle and guideline for building a new model of international relations. In recent years, over the North Korean nuclear issue, China has made the greatest contribution, shouldered the greatest responsibilities and withstood the greatest pressures to maintain general stability on the peninsula. Over the South China Sea issue, despite continual provocations and infringements, China has long exercised restraint and insisted on addressing the disputes through dialogue, making a prominent contribution to maintaining stability. We sincerely hope that other countries concerned would share with China the responsibility for building mutual trust and ensuring peace and stability in the region and the world at large. 25

26 II. We should enhance inclusiveness on a more profound level. Inclusiveness is a humanistic value commonly praised and pursued in both the East and the West. As Shakespeare put it, The quality of mercy... droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven upon the place beneath. Like the vast ocean admitting all rivers that run into it, Chinese culture has always espoused the same way of dealing with other people. With the development of globalization and information technology, the coexistence of different civilizations and courses of development has become a distinct feature of the times. In his discussions on the community of common destiny for all mankind, President Xi has emphasized that different civilizations and countries ought to learn from each other eclectically and incorporate things of diverse nature and bring about a creative development in human civilization. Inclusiveness should transcend ideology and social system and be transformed into a source of promoting more cooperation and greater harmony between countries. Firstly, we should always keep calm in the changing balance of power. Historically, changes in relative strength have frequently led to mutations in the global strategic structure and often caused misunderstandings and even triggered conflicts. It calls for joint efforts of rising powers and established ones to get rid of such historical inertia. The rising powers need to adhere to the path of peaceful development and contribute to world prosperity and stability through their own development. The established powers should accept the development of the emerging powers rather than observe it through colored glasses. In recent years, holding aloft the banner of peaceful development, China has drawn worldwide attention to what has been achieved through the hard work of all the Chinese people. China s 26

27 development is neither achieved through robbing other countries nor harming their interests. China has succeeded in feeding 20% of the world population with 9% of the world s arable land and 6% of its fresh water. However, China s per capita GDP still ranks below the 80th in the world, less than 1/7 of that of the United States, with nearly 200 million people still in poverty. For quite a long time to come, China will remain a developing country. Nevertheless, a few countries still regard China s development as a threat and feel rather upset about it. Some of them even insist on containing China. Such an aberrant mentality runs counter to the spirit of inclusiveness. If left unchecked, it is bound to aggravate suspicion and antagonism between countries, even worse, lead to the tension and turbulence in the international community. Secondly, we need to constantly deepen multilateral and inclusive dialogue and exchange. Civilizations in the world will be enriched by inclusiveness and communication. Inclusiveness promotes communication, which in turn enhances the former. At present, even though countries have attached greater importance to dialogue and communication, inequality is still widespread. Small and weak countries have little right to speak, international arbitration has been manipulated, and little care is shown to the rights of low-income and vulnerable people. All these inequities undermine the communication and mutual trust and impede the cultivation and development of inclusiveness. We maintain that all countries and nations, regardless of their size, strength and level of development, have equal rights to seek development and share prosperity. All countries should, on the basis of treating each other equally and respecting history and reality, manage their differences properly through wide participation, inclusive 27

28 dialogue, and mutual respect of core interests and major concerns. This would be the only way to translate the inclusive spirit into concrete action to enhance strategic confidence and cooperation for the benefit of all mankind. Thirdly, we should continue to expand the platforms and mechanisms for pluralism and better understanding. Despite the diversity of global platforms and mechanisms for communication, many of them are alliance-based or exclusive in terms of ideology or levels of development. Worse still, some members of the Western strategic community have recently called for building international mechanisms based on Western values and recommended the substitution of the G7 for the more inclusive G20. This would go against the spirit of tolerance, undermine fairness and justice, and aggravate misunderstanding and misjudgment. We oppose the parochial and closed model of governance in which the destiny of most countries are determined by a few, and advocate the creation of an open, comprehensive, universal and pluralist mechanism of exchange. III. We should guide harmonious openness with more just and reasonable standards. Since the modern times, the acceleration of opening up around the world has contributed to prosperity and development. However, instances of injustice and violations of the rules have occurred from time to time, with the strong bullying the weak and the smaller blackmailing the larger, which has disrupted regional and global stability. In our opinion, we should reflect upon international behavior in the context of global openness, honor the spirit of international law and the universally acknowledged principles of international relations, and strive to bring about just, rational, harmonious and well- 28

29 organized open access. Firstly, we should enforce international norms in a fair and reasonable way. The rule of law is essential to global governance in the context of open access and serves as a cornerstone of world peace and stability. China has always been a staunch defender and practitioner of the existing international law. On the basis of international norms, China has thoroughly settled disputes over land borders with 12 out of 14 neighboring countries, and has finished demarcating the border in the Gulf of Tonkin with Vietnam. However, the recent South China Sea arbitration case has been a confusion of right and wrong a farce initiated by the Philippines in bad faith at the instigation and under the manipulation of some great powers. China will never accept or acknowledge the so-called final decision by the ad hoc court of arbitration, which, having been illegally arrived at, has no legal effect whatsoever. Despite the cloak of international law, the litigation and the decision have seriously violated the common practice of international arbitration and represent a complete departure from the purpose of the UNCLOS, which is to promote peaceful settlement of disputes. They have seriously damaged the integrity and authority of the UNCLOS and gravely infringed upon China s lawful rights as a sovereign state and a signatory to the UNCLOS. Therefore, being unfair and illegal, they constitute an egregious injury to the equitable and rational observation of international rules. A small number of countries have adopted double standard regarding international rules, refusing to sign and acknowledge 29

30 relevant international laws and, meanwhile, posing as a judge in the name of maintaining law and order. This constitutes a blatant violation and infringement of the spirit of international law. In our opinion, to follow and maintain the principles of international law and international relations means to firmly defend the integrity and authority of the relevant international legal principles and rules. Like most of the other countries, China hopes for a more fair and just system of international law adhered to by all countries in all aspects, which would provide a legal basis for better-regulated order in an open world. Secondly, we should find just and rational solutions to real tensions. The fair and just settlement of disputes between countries is a prerequisite of equal and open communication. Most of the regional hot issues have complicated historical background and present-day causes. To focus on either history or the current reality alone would be unlikely to produce a conclusion or solution that is acceptable to all. Only by combining the two would it be possible to find out the crux of the problem and resolve the disputes. Over the South China Sea issue, China respects history and emphasizes the sufficient historical and legal basis for its indisputable sovereignty over the South China Sea islands and the adjacent waters; in addition, considering the current situation, it has maintained peace and stability in the South China Sea according to the principle of carrying out joint development while shelving disputes proposed in the early 1980s. History has proven, and will continue to prove, that this proposal is the most practical, most viable and most effective way to resolve the disputes. We also believe that all countries, regardless of their size, have equal obligation to respect history and the reality. A larger country should not bully a smaller one 30

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