Boudreau, & Theberge, 1981 Miltenberger, Fuqua, & Woods, 1998 Azrin & Nunn, 1977 Hansen vocalizations 1990 Riley, 1972 tics Moore, 1984 Tics tics Azri

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1 Doepke 1990 habitual behaviors habit disorders nervous habits tics stereotypic stuttering Azrin & Nunn, behaviors 1977; Woods & Miltenberger, 1996 nervous habits (Hansen et al., 1990) nailbiting hairpulling Habit reversal treatment thumbsucking scratching bruxism Hansen Tishelman Hawkins 28 雲 嘉 特 教 95 年 11 月 第 4 期 第 頁

2 Boudreau, & Theberge, 1981 Miltenberger, Fuqua, & Woods, 1998 Azrin & Nunn, 1977 Hansen vocalizations 1990 Riley, 1972 tics Moore, 1984 Tics tics Azrin & Nunn, Billings, Ingham, Tics tics tics tics DSM-IV tics coprolalia Long Miltenberger Rapp 1998 tics 32% Ollendick, 1981 tics 5% tics Boberg, Ewert, Mason, tics Lindsay, & Wynn, % Schlanger & Gottsleben, tics Evers & Van De Wetering, 1994 stuttering tics 16.6% 13.1% 1957 Long % 15.1% 13.1% American Psychiatric Association, 1994; Ladouceur, 雲 嘉 特 教 95 年 11 月 第 4 期 第 頁 29

3 Habit reversal treatment (3) Early Warning (4) Competing Response Aztin, Nunn, & Practice Frantz-Renshaw, Azrin Nunn tics (5) Situation Awareness Training Awareness Training AT Competing Response CR (1) Response Description (2) Response Detection 30 雲 嘉 特 教 95 年 11 月 第 4 期 第 頁

4 tic (Azrin & Nunn, 1973, p.623) (1) Habit Inconvenience Review (2) Social Support Motivation (3) Public Display 雲 嘉 特 教 95 年 11 月 第 4 期 第 頁 31

5 tic 7 15 Generalization tic tics 5 e.g., Ollendick, 1981; Twohig & Symbolic Rehearsal Woods, 2001 Miltenberger Fuqua Woods Miltenberger Fuqua McKinley Azrin Nunn tic Woods 32 雲 嘉 特 教 95 年 11 月 第 4 期 第 頁

6 simplified habit-reversal procedure to reduce disruptive outbursts during Miltenberger Fuqua 1985 athletic performance. Journal of Woods 1999 Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, Miltenberger & Fuqua, 1985 American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Sharenow et al., 1989; Diagnostic and statistical manual of Woods, et al., 1999 mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Azrin, N.H., & Nunn, R.G. (1973). Habit reversal: A method of eliminating nervous habits and tics. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 11, Azrin, N.H., & Nunn, R.G. (1974). A rapid method of eliminating stuttering by a regulated breathing approach. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12, e.g., Azrin, N.H., & Nunn, R.G. (1977). Habit Miltenberger & Fuqua, 1981; Sharenow et control in a day. New York: Simon and al., 1989 Schuster. Azrin, N.H., Nunn, R.G., & Frantz-Renshaw. S. (1982). Habit reversal vs negative practice treatment of self-destructive oral-habits (biting, chewing or licking DRI of the lips, cheeks, tongue or palate). Allen, 1998 Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatr, 13, Billings, A. (1978). Self-monitoring in the 2004 treatment of tics: A single subject 48 5 analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 9, Allen, K. D. (1998). The use of an enhanced 雲 嘉 特 教 95 年 11 月 第 4 期 第 頁 33

7 Boberg, E., Ewert, B., Mason, G., Lindsay, K., & Wynn, S. (1978). Stuttering in the retarded II. Evers, R. A. F., & Van De Wetering, B.J.M. (1994). A treatment model for motor tics based on a specific tension-reduction technique. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25, Hansen, D.J., Tishelman, A.C., Hawkins, R.P., & Doepke, K.J. (1990). Habits with potential as disorders: Prevalence, severity, and other characteristics among college students. Behavior Modification, 14, Ingham, R.J. (1984). Stuttering and behavior therapy; Current status and experimental foundations. San Diego, CA: College-Hill. Ladouceur, R., Boudreau, L., & Theberge, S. (1981). Awareness training and regulated breathing method in modification of stuttering. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53, Long, E. S., Miltenberger, R. G., & Rapp, J. T. (1998). A survey of habit behaviors exhibited by individuals with mental retardation. Behavioral Interventions, 13, Miltenberger, R.G., & Fuqua, R.W. (1985). A comparison of contingent versus non-contingent competing response practice in the treatment of nervous habits. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 16, Miltenberger, R. G., Fuqua, R. W., & McKinley, T. (1985). Habit reversal with muscle tics: Replication and component analysis. Behavior Therapy, 16, Miltenberger, R. G., Fuqua, R. W., & Woods, D. W. (1998). Applying behavior analysis to clinical problems: Review and analysis of habit reversal. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, Moore, W.H. (1984). Central nervous system characteristics of stutterers. In R. F. Curlee & W.H. Perkins, Nature and treatment of stuttering (pp ). San Diego, CA: College-Hill. Ollendick, T.H. (1981). Self-monitoring and self-administered overcorrection: The modification of nervous tics in children. Behavior Modification, 5, Riley, G. D. (1972). A stuttering severity instrument for children and adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 37, Schlanger, B., & Gottsleben, R. (1957). Analysis of speech defects among the institutionalized mentally retarded. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 22, Sharenow, E, L., Fuqua, R. W., & 34 雲 嘉 特 教 95 年 11 月 第 4 期 第 頁

8 Miltenberger, R.G. (1989). The treatment of muscle tics with dissimilar competing response practice. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, Twohig, M. P. & Woods, D. W. (2001). Habit reversal as a treatment for chronic skin picking in typically developing adult male siblings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, Woods, D. W., & Miltenberger, R. G. (1996). A review of habit reversal with childhood habit disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 19(2), Woods, D. W., Murray, L. K., Fuqua, R. W., Seif, T. A., Boyer, L. J., & Siah, A. (1999). Comparing the effectiveness of similar and dissimilar competing responses in evaluating the habit reversal treatment for oral-digital habits in children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 30, 雲 嘉 特 教 95 年 11 月 第 4 期 第 頁 35

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