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1 我 难 度 : 高 级 对 们 现 不 在 知 仍 道 有 听 影 过 响 多 少 那 次 么 : 研 英 究 过 文 论 去 写 文 时 作 的 表 技 引 示 巧 言 事 : 部 情 引 分 发 言 该 生 使 在 中 用 过 去, 而 现 在 完 成 时 仅 表 示 事 情 发 生 在 过 去, 并 的 哪 现 种 在 时 完 态 成 呢 时? 和 难 过 道 去 不 时 相 关? 是 所 有 过 去 的 研 究 都 跟 现 在 是 不 是 很 迷 惑? 我 们 现 在 就 为 大 家 做 一 个 简 单 的 概 括 是 现 在 引 一 完 起 个 关 发 成 展 时 注 趋 通 势 常 及 用 于 引 发 有 批 关 评 领 域 发 通 展 常 趋 表 势 明 的 句 宽 子 泛 是 现 表 在 述 完 一 成 些 时 间 因 修 为 饰 这 词 些, 事 如 件 未 最 发 近 生 在 特 长 定 期 的 被 时 视 间 为 点, 而 农 业 :The :Recently, 生 产 contribution 对 温 室 the 气 体 idea 的 影 of that 响 agricultural 争 论 some 已 久 crops ) production leave larger to CO2 greenhouse footprints gas than has others long been has gathered debated. attention. 正 近 确 日 :Some, 一 些 researchers 农 作 物 的 二 氧 have 化 碳 排 argued 放 量 大 that 于 其 他 crops 农 作 物 that 的 观 require 点 已 经 受 heavy 到 了 广 use 泛 关 of 注 ) such fertilizers, such as potatoes, leave a larger CO2 footprint than crops that nitrogenous ( 一 些 as 研 究 legumes. 人 员 认 为, 需 要 大 量 使 用 氮 肥 的 农 作 物, 如 土 豆, 其 CO2 排 放 量 大 于 其 他 使 require 用 较 少 氮 less, 农 作 物, 如 豆 类 ) 肥 的 在 正 括 确 号 :Some 中 注 明 具 researchers 体 的 时 间, 也 have 是 现 在 argued 完 成 时 that 的 一 种 crops 用 法 : that 因 为 日 require 期 不 是 句 heavy 子 的 语 use 法 成 of 分 nitrogenous 例 如 : fertilizers, such ( 一 些 as 研 究 legumes 人 员 such 认 为 (2002). as, 需 potatoes, 要 大 量 使 用 leave 氮 肥 的 a 农 larger 作 物, CO2 如 土 footprint 豆, 其 CO2 than 排 放 量 crops 大 于 其 that 他 使 require 用 较 少 氮 less, 农 作 物, 如 豆 类 (2002)) 肥 的 若 不 一 句 自 般 过 子 然 去 中 时 指 明 了 具 体 的 研 究 日 期, 那 么 有 必 要 使 用 一 般 过 去 时 这 种 情 况 下 若 使 用 现 在 完 成 时 会 显 得 Copyright Uni-edit 1 of 6 Not for distribution

2 learn ( 在 :Smith 2009 about 及 et the 2010 al. connection 年, conducted 史 密 斯 等 between 人 a 在 2-year 稻 田 rice 进 field 行 了 production 两 experiment 年 田 间 试 and 验 以 in greenhouse 了 2009 解 水 and 稻 生 2010 产 gas 和 温 emissions. in 室 rice 气 体 排 paddies 放 之 间 的 to 关 正 paddies 系 确 ) 但 不 to 自 然 learn :Smith about et the al. connection have conducted between a 2-year rice production field experiment and greenhouse in 2009 and gas 2010 emissions. in rice 在 引 言 部 Smith 分, 若 提 al. 及 具 conducted 体 的 作 者 名 a 字 2-year, 通 常 field 使 用 一 experiment 般 过 去 时 connection ( 史 密 斯 等 人 between 在 稻 田 进 rice 行 了 两 production 年 田 间 试 验 and 以 了 greenhouse 解 水 稻 生 产 和 gas 温 emissions. 室 in 气 rice 体 排 放 paddies 之 间 的 关 to 系 learn ) about the such fertilizers, 正 确 : Bouwmann such as al. potatoes, (2002) argued leave a that larger crops CO2 that footprint require than heavy crops use that of nitrogenous (Bouwmann as legumes. 等 人 (2002) 认 为, 需 要 大 量 使 氮 肥 的 农 作 物, 如 土 豆, 其 CO2 排 放 量 大 require 于 其 他 使 less, 说 少 明 氮 : 肥 请 的 注 农 作 意 物, 在 如 上 豆 面 类 的 ) 例 子 中, 当 我 们 用 Bouwmann 等 人 而 不 是 一 些 研 究 人 员 时, 我 们 用 较 的 是 现 在 完 成 时, 这 是 因 为 一 些 研 究 人 员 不 是 具 体, 而 Bouwmann 等 人 是 具 体 的 用 描 同 样 述 过 的 去 原 则 的 适 研 用 究 发 于 : 现 我 们 或 本 研 究 的 作 者, 指 的 都 是 具 体 的 研 究 人 员, 所 以 应 使 用 过 去 时 来 正 crops ( 确 我 们 :We 之 grown 前 previously 开 展 in 了 Taoyuan 一 项 conducted 实 验 County 以 了 解 an 在 (2011). experiment 桃 园 种 植 的 各 to 种 learn 农 作 物 about 的 碳 排 the 放 carbon 量 (2011) footprints ) for various 此 在 否 定 否 句 定 句 中, 现 在 完 成 时 更 为 常 见 的 在 同 时 使 用 考 察 决 定 透 露 等 动 词 时, 更 是 如 has ( 正 是 确 not 否 :Whether 减 少 yet 土 豆 been reducing 作 物 determined. 是 一 个 potato 可 行 的 crops 减 少 温 is 室 a 气 viable 体 排 放 的 strategy 策 略 尚 未 to 得 reduce 到 定 论 ) greenhouse gas emissions Copyright Uni-edit 2 of 6 Not for distribution

3 the ( 想 人 想 们 zoo 看 从, 未 yesterday 如 发 果 现 某 黑 事 色 从 北 ( 未 一 极 被 只 熊 研 北 ) 究 极 过 熊, 昨 那 天 就 在 没 动 有 物 具 园 体 出 研 生 究 ) 时 和 间 A 例 black 如, 比 polar 较 A bear polar has bear never was been born born in 正 如 确 之 : 前 Smith 所 述, 如 al. 果 句 conducted 子 中 有 指 明 a 具 2-year 体 日 期 field 或 作 者 experiment, 那 么 使 用 一 in 般 rice 过 去 时 paddies 是 比 较 合 to 适 learn 的 connection consider between rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. However, they about did the ( 史 密 斯 等 the 人 在 effects 稻 田 进 行 of 了 两 nitrogenous 年 田 间 试 验 以 fertilizers. 了 解 水 稻 生 产 和 温 室 气 体 排 放 之 间 的 关 系, 然 而 他 们 没 not 考 虑 氮 肥 的 影 响 ) 有 总 之 : 若 现 句 在 中 完 未 成 指 时 明 表 具 示 体 时 趋 间 势 和 或 作 尚 者 无, 定 则 论 使, 用 反 现 之 在, 则 完 使 成 时 用 一 般 过 去 时 用 Copyright Uni-edit 3 of 6 Not for distribution

4 Uni-edit English Writing Tip: Present Perfect Tense and Past Tense in your Introduction Difficulty: Advanced How many times have you been told the following: the past tense denotes an event that happened in the past, while the present perfect tense denotes an event that happened in the past, which has present consequences.? But, what about the Introduction section of research papers? Aren t all of the past findings relevant to my present research? Confused? So are we! Here is an easy guide. Present perfect Present perfect is often used for broad statements about trends in the field. Temporal adjectives like recently and long considered and words like gather attention and draw criticism often suggest the present perfect tense. This is because these events did not occur at specific point in time: rather, they are trends. Correct: The contribution of agricultural production to greenhouse gas has long been debated. Correct: Recently, the idea that some crops leave larger CO2 footprints than others has gathered attention. Correct: Some researchers have argued that crops that require heavy use of nitrogenous fertilizers, such as potatoes, leave a larger CO2 footprint than crops that require less, such as legumes. This usage of present perfect includes cases where the date a specific point in time is expressed in parentheses: because the date is not a grammatical part of the sentence. Correct: Some researchers have argued that crops that require heavy use of nitrogenous fertilizers, such as potatoes, leave a larger CO2 footprint than crops that require less, such as legumes (2002). Simple past When the date of a study is expressed in the body of the sentence, past tense is necessary. In fact, present perfect sounds unnatural. Correct: Smith et al. conducted a 2-year field experiment in 2009 and 2010 in rice paddies to learn about the connection between rice production and greenhouse gases emissions. Unnatural: Smith et al. have conducted a 2-year field experiment in 2009 and 2010 in rice paddies to learn about the connection between rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright Uni-edit 4 of 6 Not for distribution

5 In the Introduction Section, past tense usually applies when the specific authors are referenced by name. Correct: Smith et al. conducted a 2-year field experiment in rice paddies to learn about the connection between rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. Correct: Bouwmann et al. (2002) argued that crops that require heavy use of nitrogenous fertilizers, such as potatoes, leave a larger CO2 footprint than crops that require less, such as legumes. Explanation: Notice that when Bouwmann et al. was Some researchers in the Present perfect explanation above, it was present perfect. This is because some researchers is not specific, whereas Bouwmann et al. is specific. The same principles apply to you: we or the authors of the present study are specific researchers, so past tense should be used to report findings of your past studies. Correct: We previously conducted an experiment to learn about the carbon footprints for various crops grown in Taoyuan County (2011). Negative sentences The present perfect is more common when the grammatical tense is negative (i.e. when not is used.) This is especially true with verbs like investigated, determined, revealed, etc. Correct: Whether reducing potato crops is a viable strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has not yet been determined. Consider that if something has never been investigated, there is no specific time when it was not investigated: compare A polar bear was born in the zoo yesterday with A black polar bear has never been found. That being said, again, the simple past is more appropriate if the specific date or authors are written in the sentence. Correct: Smith et al. conducted a 2-year field experiment in rice paddies to learn about the connection between rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. However, they did not consider the effects of nitrogenous fertilizers. Copyright Uni-edit 5 of 6 Not for distribution

6 To sum up: Use present perfect when the specific date or authors are not written in the sentence. Use present perfect to denote trends or lack of conclusions. Use past tense otherwise. END OF TIP Copyright Uni-edit 6 of 6 Not for distribution

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