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11 ο HOH O H A 1 1

12 A ο

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16 Q C D t z = ρ z 1 1 z t D z z z t Qz = 1 2 z D z

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19 2 2 Cl HCO SO CO 3 4 3

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21 3 4 HCO SO F0. 005H SiO0. 032M T4 9 ( K + Na) Ca

22 C Ca

23 HCO 3 HCO + SO HCO SO 4 + Cl HCO 3 + Cl SO SO 4 + Cl + NH 4 HCO 3 SO 2 4 NO 3

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27 1/2 S = K K K 15 3/ / K K ( 1-7) 15 15

28 HCO SO Cl NO Ca Na Mg K 3 4 3

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45 W T = 2 1 W

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50 I Q = ds dt I t - θ t = s ( 2 2 ) I θ s t P + R E = 0 ( 2 6 ) P R R s

51 P E + R = P E R P = E 2 9 P = E ( P + P ) ( E + E ) = R 2 10 P = P + P E = P + E P E = R 2-11 P 800 E 485 R

52 P + R = E P R = E P + P = E + E 2-12 P = E 2-13

53

54

55 E R t L p = ( ) 2 15

56 E E M E = ϕ E 2-16 ϕ ϕ

57 ϕ j 2 E = 0. 22( e e ) u

58 E R H H n + a s = 2-23 L( 1+ β) H β = = C P T T 0 B 2-24 H e e e 0 R n + Ha Hs E = P T0 T L e e ( R n + H a + Hs) + LB( E2 s e 2) γ LE = / γ = e e 0s 2s T T s = k wρ u2 B k mρc 1 [ 1n( Z2 / Z1 )] u 2 Z2

59 Et F F Et = E t 2-30 F

60 E R = P ϕ 2-32 LP R E = P 1 e LP mm / a 2-33 E E th LP R = R L th LP p = ( mm / a) 2 34 R RP E = LP th L R ch R LP sh R 1 LP ( mm / a ) 2 35

61 E k c 2 = ( kg / m s) 2 36 x c c x k x Ex E x Ex + x x c x x t Ex c Ex Ex + x = x x 2-37 t

62 E c x + = x t c k x / x + c / t = x 2 c c = k x t x c c c c = k x 2 + k y 2 + k z t x ay z E = k c x T Q = λ w 2-42 Z 2 T Q w J / m s J / m s Z c t = 0

63 U c c c c = Dx 2 + Dy 2 + Dz x x y z c U c c c c + = Dx 2 + Dy 2 + Dz t x x y z U c x y z x

64 ϖ ρqu L Z ρqu ϖ P P = ρq Z Z P ρg ρqu ϖ L Z ρqu ϖ P 1 L ρg g qu ϖ = = L P 2-48 E = 1 ϖ qu 2-49 g ϖ ϖ u qu g = 1 ( / ) ( qu n L) i / q 2-50 F i ϖ ϖ 2-12, BC = 1, u(qu) / g ϖ ϖ u(qu) / g 0 ϖ ϖ u( qu) / g 0

65

66 P = R + E

67

68 P + P Pn P = Λ n

69 f1p1 + f2p2 + Λ + fnpn 1 P = = f + f + Λ + f f 1 2 n i= 1 f P i i P = f P F i i 2 54 i= 1

70 P j n PiWi i= 1 = = W n j W P n j i i i= 1 i 1 i= 2-56 W i j Wj Wi = n j j W i= 1 P N 1 P = Pj N j= 1 j 2-27

71

72

73 P = w m m P 2 59 w

74

75 df do = f 2 60 ϕ / z v = z k ( ϕ) ϕ z + k( ϕ ) 2-61 ϕ θ vz + = t z θ θ θ θ t = z D( ) z z k( ) 2 63

76 1 F( t) = st 2 + [ A2 + k( θi )] t df( t) 1 f( t) = = st 2 + [ A2 + k( θ i)] 2-65 dt 2 f k H s L p = s 2-66 L F = ( θ s θ i) L 2-67 ( θ s θ i ) S fp = k F f = df p dt 2 68 df = ks( 1 + ( θ s θ i ) S / F) 2-69 dt t F 1 k dt s F df s = ( θ θ ) / F ks t = F s( θs θi) 1 n + 1 ( θ s θ i) s 2-70 F k s + H k ( s + H )( θ θ ) 0 s o s i = 2 s t f = 2-71 θ θ 2t s i s i

77 βt f = fc + ( f0 fc) e 2 72 df = β( f f dt c ) n( f fc ) = βt + c t 1 t F = fdt = f t + f f 1 e β ( )( ) c β 0 c

78

79 Q QT R = F 1000Q M = 2 79 F α = R R P a 1 P

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81

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85

86 R ( t ) = idt i dt edt dt fdt ( 3-1) s t t t t t n s d 0 0 drs( t) = rs ( t) = i( t) f( t) ( 3-2) dt

87 t t t A B W(t) = W( 0 ) + f dt f dt R dt ( 3-3) ss dwt = 0 dt dwt = f A fb rss = 0 ( 3-4) dt rs s = fa f B ( 3-5) t t t 0 C 0 ( ) 0 g W = W + f dt r dt 3-6 t t t t 0 C 0 s s g 0 ( ) 0 W = W + f dt r dt r dt 3-7 dwt = f C rg = 0 dt

88 dw t = f C rss rg = 0 dt t t t t W t = W 0 + idt f Bdt rs sdt rs s t dt ( 3-8) dwt = 0 dt dwt = 0 = i rss fb rsa t dt

89 R = ( i f) 3-10 s t= n t= 0

90 dr dr 1 = 1 dp dp

91 Lm τ m = ( 3 12) V L m V

92 k = L 0 / V (3-13) n n I i( t) [ I i( t) ] ( ) i= = Φ i= 1

93 R = R = ( i t f t) ( 3-17) s n i s n i α = R P

94 2 v 1 2 v = mi 2R 3 ( 3-18) l1 l2 v = + ( 3-19) τ1 τ 2 ω = 1 = f τ Q = 1 ω1h t 1 = 1 t

95 ω1h 2 + ω 2h1 Q 1 = = t t ω1h3 + ω 2h 2 + ω 3h1 Q 3 = = t t ω 2h 3 + ω3h2 + ω4 h1 Q 4 = = t t ω3h3 + ω 4h2 + ω5h1 Q 5 = = t t ω5h3 + ω 5h2 Q 6 = = t t ω 5h3 Q 7 = = t t

96 h1 10Q Q1 = q 1 q 1 = 10 h 1 1 Q 2 h2 h h Q2 q 1 q 2 = 2 + q 1 q 10 2 = h /

97

98 Q t y = 1 F = = 20. 0( )

99

100 n 1 1 K e 1 t u( 0, t) = ( 3-20) k( n 1)! K n = c F I 1 α1 β1 K = c F I 2 α2 β2

101 9 6 GWF = [ 1 ( kk ) ]( 1+ KV GWS) SGW ( 3 22) 2 4 1

102 V = L (3 23) t

103 v = c RI ( 3 24) F 0 Q = dq = vdf

104 R = P E ( 3 25) R P E R n 1 Q 0 Q n Qi n ( 3 26) i= 1 Q n Q 0 Q n

105 n Ri fi R1 f1 + R 2 f2 + Λ + Rn fn i= 1 R0 = = ( 3 27) F F R = R + R i i+1 i 2

106 X R = = R 0 0 ( 3 28) X R = X α ( 3 29) 0 0 Cv = n ( Ki ) 2 1 n 1 ( 3 30 ) i= 1

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110 2 12 Ki 1 i= K 1 Cv y = ( 3 31) 12 K = 100% = V Cr = ( 3 22) W 0 V Cr = ( 3 33) W V W C r 0

111

112 S Q = 0.278ϕ F ( 3-34 ) τ m n ϕ H 2 S = n τ τ v = c R I Q = F v K = F c R Q = K I K

113 F1 + F2 1 1 F = c = ( c1 + c 2) R = ( R1 + R2 ) K = ( K1 + K2) K 1 = F1 c1 R1 K 2 = F2 c2 R2 2 c = 1 n R 1 6 ( 3-35 ) c = 1 n R y ( 3-36 ) y = 2.5 n R n 0.10 R 3.0 3/2 Q = mb 2gH ( 3 37) 0

114 dw = Q dt dq Q = 1 k dt k t Q t = Q0e ( 3 38) 1 1 = α Q = Q e a t 0 k

115 R e = vd R e = vr R e 300 R e 300 v v U = U + U U U U U U 1 T U = U dt = 0 ( 3 40) T 0 U = U + U V = V + V W = W + W σ = U 2 σ σ u = V v w 2 = W 2 σu σ v σ w U V W * * *

116 σ u, U * i i i 0 i

117 Q L dl + Q t dt = 0 ( 3 41)

118 dl Q Q = dt t L dl = ω ( ω ) dt dl Q Q ω = = ( 3 42) dt t L Q F + = 0 L t Q F F Q = = L t Q t Q F Q ( 3 42 ) = ( )( ) t Q t ω = Q F dq VdF + FdV = = V + FdV df df df ω = V + FdV ( 3 43) df V = c Ri h R V = c hi dv c i dh c hi dh Vdh = = = 2 h 2 h h 2h ω = V + BhVdh = V + V 2hBdh 2 ω = 15. V ( 3 44)

119

120 u y u y u x u x u y 3 46c 0 u x

121 4 ρs ρ gd ω = ( 3 45) 3 ρ cd 2 1 ρ ρ s gd ω = ( 3 46) 18 ρ v

122 ρs ρ ω = gd ( 3 47) ρ 2 V d 2 2g 2 2 P rk d V x = 2g

123 2 2 V 3 rkd d rs r f g = ( ) rk d = 2fg r r V 2 ( ) A = s rk 2 fg( r r) d = AV 2 s d rs = rs ( AV ) = rsa V V c = R 6d 3 ( 3 50 ) h rs r h V c = d + 2 ( ) (3-51) d r d

124 2 V d h = ω ( 3-51) 5 5

125 v Riv S = ( 3-53) ω ω 0

126 2. 26 v S = ( 3-54) R ω 0 3 S = 0.07 v ( 3-55) ghω 3

127

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129 1

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131 ( m) ( c ) ( a ) m c a c a a a a a = = 2 2 b = 0 c = a = m n a a a ( 3-56) a

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141 E = dρ (3-57) dh

142 2L 2L T = = C gh (3-59) 2L T = ( 3 61) n gh 2L λ = ( 3 62) n τ h = C al gh dos s α (3 63) ρ

143

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145 W T = (3-66) Q 86400

146 V, V W 0 β W 0 Wv W0 W η = η = W W 0 0 c

147 (%) *

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153 2 c = gh g

154

155 ϕ ϕ = A E A + A F E 100% ( 3-68) ϕ ϕ ϕ

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166 c = ( 4 1 )

167

168 C = g λ 2πh s tanh ( 4 2 ) 2π λ gλ Cs = ( 4 3 ) 2π Cs = gh ( 4 4 ) C h g tanh 2 π h s λ λ π λ = gt 2 2π tanh 2 h ( 4 6) λ λ = gt 2 ( 4 7 ) 2π 4-3 c = 1.25 λ T = 0.8 λ g λ gt 2 2πc gt 2 2πλ 2πc 2π 2π g 2π g g k h r = r e (4 ) 8 0

169 r = a k = 2 π 0 u = rσ λ 2πh 2πk λ / k ( 4 2) tanh = λ λ c = gk ( 4 10)

170 x = x + PM = x + rsinθ ( 4 10) z = z PO = z rcosθ x = x + asinθs (4 ) 11 z = z - bcosθ

171

172 gλ C = π

173 C = gh ( 4 13) 1 1 h H 4l 2 ( 4 14)

174

175 c = gh

176 gh 1 h2 c 2 = gh 2 h1 h 2 c1 c2 c1dt sinθ1 = A B c2dt sinθ2 = A B sinθ1 c 2 = sinθ c 2 1 c2 sinθ = sin θ ( 4 15) 2 1 c1

177 f = k M E (4-16) R 2 f k M g M 2 = r p 1 x = 4 E x 2 2 ( 17) 2 k = k = g r r g E

178 f E k M E E = 2 ( 4 18) R f k M E = 2 ( 4 19) R

179 1 A F k M 1 k M 1 k Mr A = 2 2 = 2 3 ( R r) R r ( 4 20) 2 B F k M 1 k M 1 kmr B = 2 2 = 2 3 ( R + r) R R ( 4 21) 3 C F k M 1 k M 1 H( C) = 2 sin ϕ 2 = 0 L R ( 4 22) F k M 1 k Mr v( C) = 2 cos ϕ 0 = 3 L R 4 D F = 0 ( 4 23) ( 4-24) H( D) F = ( ) k M 1 V D 3 R 5 N F k M 1 k M 1 H( N) = 2 sin( θ + ϕ) 2 sin θ ( 4 25) L L 3 kmr = 3 sin2θ 2 R F k M 1 k M 1 V( N) = 2 cos( θ + ϕ) 2 cosθ L R = k Mr 2 3 ( 3cos θ 1) R 3 = k Mr (cos θ ) R 3 3 kmr 1 = 3 (cos 2θ + ) 2 R 3 3 ksr FH ( N) = 3 sin 2θ ( 4 26) 2 R 3 ksr 1 FV ( N) = 3 cos 2θ = ( 4 27) 2 R 3 3 F V M R = ( 4 28) FV S R

180

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184 ω ϕ

185 τ ρ ρ D a = W 7. 6 ( 4 23) sinϕ ϕ W v0 = ( 4 33) sinϕ

186 π D h a vh = v0e ( 4 34)

187 mg P2 = ( 4 36) s P2 P1 h = ( 4 40) ρg

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196 H N a = rszzdz ( 4 41) z 0 H N b = rsz ( H Z) dz ( 4 42) z 0 H N = Na + N b = rh SzdZ = rhv ( 4 43) z 0 1 P = EC ( 4 44) 2 g P = rh 2 T ( 4 45) 32π P = H T H T( / ) 32π

197 P = E = 10 = 500 ( 4-47) t 3 10

198 P = 1 2 mv + mgh ( 4-48) 2

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205 ó

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210 i f E = E p f i a E = Epexp (-k t) ( 5 3) i a E = C

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218 ( H m a x H + ht) α = ( 5 9) P i

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221 H n E = E ( 1 ) ( 5 10) o H o o d E = E e ( 5 11) 0 a k µ E 2 0 E = b ( 5 12) ( 1+ H)

222 V = k( I I 0 ) (5 13) V k H H 1 2 = I 0 ( 5 14) L

223 H = 2σ cos θ ( 5 17) r ρ g H = 10 6 ( ) H = ( ) ( 5 18) r d 0 Pc L P I = ( + ) = L V k P L c = L c L L ( 5 20) (5 ) 21

224 V k I I k P L c = ( 0 ) = I 0 ( 5 22) L V k P L c = I 0 ( 5 23) L P H c Pc = I H = ( 5 24) H I + 0 1

225 Q ka h h 1 2 = ( 5 25) L V = k h ( 5 L 29) V = k dh V ki ( 5 30) dl V k d Φ = ( 5 31) dl I = d Φ V dl

226 Q u = ( 5 32) nw γ k = k 0 ( 5 34) v

227

228 Q = ka dh ( 5 37) dr Q = k2π rh dh ( 5 38) dr R Q dr H = 2πk hdh r r 0 h0 Q k H 2 h 2 k H 2 h = π = ln( R / r ) lg( R / r ) 0 0 ( 5 39) ( 2H S0 ) S0 Q = k ( 5 40) lg( R / r ) 0 Q r Q r 2 2 h = ln 2 h = ln + h 0 ( 5 41) πl r + h πk r 0 0 Q( 1gR 1gr 0) 1gR 1gr 0 k = k = 0. 73Q ( 5 42) ( 2H S ) S ( 2H S ) S Q = k2π rm dh ( 5 43) dr H Q R dr dh = h km 0 2π r0 r Q km H h Q km H h 0 0 = 2π = (5 44 ) ln( R / r ) lg( R / r ) Q km S 0 = lg( R / r ) S 0 0 ( 5 45) Q R = lg ( 5 46) 2πkM r 0

229

230

231

232 P + R E = 0 ( 5 51) g 1 2

233 P R E Q = Q ( 5 52) a 0

234

235 y y 1 1 y y

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238 6-1 ( )

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248 6-4

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253 V dc = Q(C 0 C) kcv 6 1 dt ( ) C = C Q 0 + C q k C Q C q i ( 0 + i ) ( 6 2 ) Q + q

254 Q q dw s = ( ) = 3 dt s 4 p w 2 ρ ρ ρ ρ D ( ) p ρs dw = 0 dt w = 4gD p ( ρ ρ ) s 3ρ p 1 1 ( 6 4 ) 2 4πr = = = ( / ) ( 6 5 ) 4 2 r πr

255

256

257 L = L k x u 0 exp( 1 / ) C = Cs ( Cs C k x u 0)exp( 2 / ) k1l0 + [exp( k1x / u) exp( k2x / u)] k1 k2 k L 1 0 D = D0 exp( k2x / u) 9exp( k1x / u) k1 k2 exp( k x u 2 / ) ( 6 6) u k Cs C k k 2 ( 0)( 2 1) xc = ln 1 ( 6 7 ) k 2 k1 k1 L0L1 k1l0 k1x0 Cc = Cs exp( ) k u 2 ( 6 8 ) k1l0 k1x0 Dc = exp( ) k u 2

258 =

259

260

261 C C Q + C = Q Q + Q p p E E P E ( 6 11) E = Ce Q p + QBi Qp Cp ( 6 13) i=1 C C Q C Q p p + E + E WS = + ( 6 14) Q 864. Q p C S P C Q C Q P P + E E r { 0 } = S ( 6 16) QP + QE Qi + k V Ce C0 exp t Qi kv V ( + ) E = ( 6 17) Qi + kv 1 exp V

262 Qi C C k V t { Q kv e 0 exp ( + ) } ( i + ) E = ( 6 18) Qi k + v t 1 exp ( )

263

ttian

ttian T = l g = a - b a ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ SiO SiO 65% SiO 52% SiO 52 45% SiO 45% 20 45% 10% 50% 95% 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.5 S0=1.94

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