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1 联合国 经济及社会理事会 Distr.: General 9 March 2012 Chinese Original: English E/CN.16/2012/3 科学和技术促进发展委员会 }èp ~ Ž 25 ¼m g zèr 3(b) 利用开放存取 虚拟科学图书馆 地理空间分析和其他信息和通信技术及科学 技术 工程和数学辅助资产解决发展问题, 同时要特别注重教育 秘书长的报告 ²o Ìn š y lë k (GIS) Àö ÄÈ gì È ± üè ü Âx~ x ÙÚ ² ³ «rq² ö ˆn GE (C)

2 目录 x ö ³ Š... 3 A. ö... 3 B. ³ fq n... 4 p. ºsu «š y lë... 4 A B. š y lë... 7 C. ² Ìn k k{âé ² A. k k{âé B. Ìn GIS k{âé ² C. GIS {Â ²qÃvq ² }Ä k GIS ˆnÁÈqüf Å u{ A. u{ B References GE

3 导言 1. ³ ( ³ ) Í ö Í ² º ² äq gì y z (STEM) f ² äq ¹µ x j q q Âvoö q ³ ³ qç ²q Í Ìn 2. y ²ö ~(y ö ) hÿq}è ~ ² Ìn š y lë k{âé ºw ³ öy z ±Ù«r Àö ÁÈ ü gì g Á~ Âq f~ gè 3. g ² gèq o éùy ö }èp ~ q y ö zl p Ž 15 Í hÿo ~ q q y ö rq öºwrº h 一. 将教育 发展和信通技术联系起来 A. 教育和发展 4. vë} ÍÎ} v ÍÅ üf q Ÿ g È ö «öft x~ ¹dn x~ râ q o u f ² qúù  pº o ŽgºÀ(World Bank, 2011 IICD, 2007: 16-18) STEM 5. npüyñ gìä STEM È ö f} Î} STEM y u q u ² y u q ö dˆö f Œ»µ q STEM dt wy ƒ jë qt u(united Kingdom Science and Learning Expert Group, 2010) 6. } ö f q STEM Åg ÁÈ â q dt à ( i Â) t ÁÈqº Â Ä Î STEM y mq Ø STEM d ~xë³ t qä Ú ˆºn ( Í)ö f gö f qu{t q ³ u{ ~ööÿu{ Ìn ³ ºw ² ÅŒö n GE

4 B. 信通技术在教育中的作用 7. q i ³ Ê ˆ yœ wt ³ r q (Anderson, 2010: 4) ³ g y k ~k Í q (UNCTAD, 2011 Anderson, 2010: 4) 8. ³ oüy ü ~ ùx ² qu ~ ö k²z ²â rå ˆ ² ç p Ì ƒqxç q ~ kj ˆ Ä Œ Ørº q dö ü q~kí x Î «(Haddad and Draxler, 2002: 9 Tinio, 2002 Anderson, 2010: IICD, 2007: 13) 1. ³ q 9. t Ç ùx³² y ü Ìn ³ ² k²z(tinio, 2002) Ë k ³ g k ³ ýqy º xö Ìn º ² ²z º Ìn ³ kr pˆn ³ ²{ yè q k²z } ³² ³ ²Ÿ²z k ˆn ³ ˆ mœ ² y k 2. ² n ³ 10. { n ³ µ ~ê k ÅjŸqÍ f ÄÈ }Í ùxö n Ùv f ² ²n ³ d Í qºƒ À(ADB, 2010: 4) É q }Œ ÙÚ f Ø Ÿ ˆnüÈ ²Ä éü Ù } ³ qö }Š (Haddad and Draxler, 2002: 16 infodev/world Bank, 2008) 11. š y lë k (GIS)} ³ «rœ ² STEM Î uu{ qùö ö f g ˆ tyœ pšˆ Žn š y lëœ g~ y Œ q º GIS k{âé ùÿnp À xtºéqö ÁÈ g STEM k ŽÌ ² Ùpv uq o ³ qúù  二. 共享知识财富 : 开放存取和虚拟科学图书馆 12. n rçqgƒ  u ~ qg Ãv öÿu{ q ³ z ² np ««ƒˆ x u{ q Ä Š ö «²q Ä º Í«Âqƒ q k ÙÀoo u{œ q Û ùx³² š y lë²ef² Ìn ³ à ~ ¹ku qãv gì ö f qãv 4 GE

5 A. 开放存取 13. nºsu{ q~ öÿ { Çfg ³ µä g w«n w«â 20 ²y Í qå ¹ É h x ƒ qtågqãv ² x Ÿ zg ö q ² (BOAI) hq ig ¹ºpŠˆ ùxžn h µ { n  ± Í í Ž ¹ º²Ÿf º g ˆ ±z gº { ü rqøx n ÃoqÂpŠˆ qã v { «n ÅqÃv. Í Åq ÂÍ öf È q n ˆ Œ ͺ q ² qž n (BOAI, cited in Hedlund and Rabow, 2007: 13) ey ü 15. Çf «üÿ q q¼ ˆ q Ér (DOAJ)fùx Í qêÿ q¼ f 8.5% no q öég y r ² ü r q¼ ¹ «¹ ² qµé¼ ³ ¼ ùœ³ ²  Çfqºw ùx «ù xw«ˆ «² ü (Laakso et al. 2011: 1-2 Zhong, 2009: ) 16. { Çf Çfq (Ž ) pºwš j q â ~ŽftˆÈ p y 2008 Çfq 11.9%ùx³² 2 ùxˆn (Google Scholar)² ² q (Laakso et al. 2011: 1-2 Zhong, 2009: ) 1. q 17. gu{t r ùx éft pšˆqù qu{ùœ~ ² o f«œ Ù i ~k zºu{ Ù ²f i ùx g q º (RCAAP, 2009: 7) q¹å ê u ÊŸ(OpenDOAR) u q (ROAR) toprep.asp?offset=50 dn ü GE

6 18. Œgö f r g où qu{ öÿ ³ Das }t(2008: 1-2) ºpq qu{f Í ³xüyü q j lë É z Ø} 3 q wyöj µé h Ío º ¹ºµÁ ÅrÌ q (NRC, 2006: 87-88) 19. Ãsü Í qr ² Û Î Ž 2002 ² ö x Çjo ÙÚ ~ q Çf r (Greyson et al Zhong, 2009: ) 4 1 Êhoºp qg Ž 2010 u q Ê 1,764 f y º¼ ùx³² (Moore, 2010) Šü r v qšü ƒkõ o ² ŽÌ u{ q gìgö f q u{ ŽÌ(UNESCO, 2011c FAO, 2011 WHO, 2011 WIPO, 2011) 1 ºp qg ² 2001 ºpŽ t y u q 2003 «² Çf 2003 x~dnî ~ (WSIS)ñÊ ŸÙ Ê 2003  lëé~šü~(  Š)ºp u{ q 2004 «y hqérèñê Å ÌÇf q 2004 Ìqu{ u ~(ARIIC)ºp q 2005 m ö fdnq 2005 ºpö f q }qjøˆ 2006 u{šr(ercim)ºp q 2006 í u ~(NKC)ºp q 2007 ü ºp¹º«Ùu{ q 2007 ºp ÂÍ Çfu{ q 2007 òæ Das et al ö ~ y q ý Ù¹kê ± g u «( ºp qg ÊŸ Das et al. (2008: 3) 6 GE

7 2. Ÿ qãv 20. š Í q Œ q r k Í ³ «ö ³ qåfãvk º 21. Ë ¼ u{r qg k u{ qg qˆn  ùœ vö f u{t Ìnu { öÿž q ² q ¼ (Tinio, 2002) }p š Œ rí q q ÄxŸ Ä ºƒ š Ãs u{q Ø ² i rðq zv èé  5 } Çf Â Ê Å ÁÈ ùxk q } Çf Í g² wy Çf o² q ä ³ Çf ÿü qáè èé v öo pô{ÿg º Çf q ²Ù ou{t Å q~ Ú go Îftü y o º q öÿ ² µéµ q n Ø iqv Øo ü qï ˆ y qºw Ø (Chan et al. 2011) } ºp g( ˆ xºw )Çf «xtºéqáè ± µéu{ g ~k«n x º wçf«n}jÿž öo± y q«ù u q Çf ƒ ý µéìn qr È ² qj Í ³ n }ºÀ u q ³ E/CN.16/2012/3 B. 虚拟科学图书馆 22. š { ùx ºs q{â Ãs ³ ˆ y ~ ¹ku š {Âqˆnk r 10 t y o q  «öš lë gì š y lë ² lëfq g k g «23. š lë s öºƒ{â ƒˆq lë (Riccio, 2001) š lë ùx ¼ kùx gá ² ºw q ~ q¼ lëq n Ë ²f i š lë o² y lëë Øöºw «q ~ 24. š y lë n Ê üq ~º «ˆº ² n š y lëµ ¹ qèr q ìm lëqrq Á Ø q ìm q ~(Pan-American Health Organization, 5 u{qõ lr Hitchcock 2011 GE

8 2011) 6 Ø y hf (BANSDOC) Ø ˆ¹ Œ ˆnºˆ lë 7 ºwqš y lë ü q CRDF š y lë Äo  öìq { qˆ q  } š y lëqq ÂÍ y n q~ {rº q À ö f qn Âͱ ²ùŒ «q ˆ u{ (NBER)í ö f ùx «± NBER q z (NBER, 2011) ŠÒ lë qèrq ²qÈrgö f «ƒz ΫüŸ y q ~ ºw  k È žço Ù 2 š y lë ö f Ϋu{Çfgq ~èé  yuno à o qu «(Bibliotheca Alexandrina, 2011) g À² ÁÈ ˆ nu{ ö ~(CRDF)p 2007 Ë o š y lë p 2010 ºzr ~k go lë Ø s Ào 3 fºàáè v ² ¼ v lëžpˆnöv lëqù ²v 25 u{ â 8,000 üftn ˆn² ± ² 100 { qu{öÿi Žñ q òæ :Bibliotheca Alexandrina (2011) University of Maryland (2011) Thomson Reuters (2006) CRDF Global (2011) European Commission (2006) š y lëq 26. š y lëº y~û Ë ¼ g ùx Î Œ ø v¼ q äf ü öm uö ppšˆq ¼ ƒp µùx ± ² ùx ~ u ² n ü ˆnqùŒ 2 o š y lëq À lë ÊÇf¹úü g yun o q ³ 27. ˆ ² vn Ìnš y lë pˆ q ³ n À²q² ÁÈq fø n «Ùq ˆ ¼u{ GE

9 Î} q ˆ ² dnü u{ ˆ È{Ø( 3)(Dyer, 2009) 3 u{ ˆ (NRENs)x ¾ Ì Ô þ 2002 q u{ˆ ( uˆ)³² ˆ 60 ¹ Šˆ q lë ؈ ù «Â 23,000 {u { 45,000 u{m ql uˆ qy u{ t Š ÙÚ 155Mbps ² q u ˆ 2008 uˆ}p Ù ö Øo 10 f Gbps uˆ } u{ ˆ ² Ô Ì þ u{ ˆ ( u ˆ) 2007 g ±t Û ö u { u q¹yü h ²n ³ ²q u{ ˆ ˆu{t Œ dn ¼q 2008 u ˆ oq x~ë qèr ö u ˆÎ³Î ˆ ˆ x g ² ç öî} n k º g Ÿ ˆÁ ²zço u ˆ êq ºw çq µáü u ˆ q Ù Íoˆ ݼ ºˆ «f } q Ù òæ (UNESCO, 2010) C. 连接 开放性 28. š y lëqö v p q Î q   qù ef È 9 ² q ²Ù ²Ùqö iâ º Ÿi (Moody, 2006) q nùxìn  n q Í(Kelly et al. 2007: 172) 29. t Ç Ùpƒ Îùö À qùœ (Corrado, 2005) ÁÈÄ À Ë ùx üqk ùx sžnˆn Žn }}(Cerri and Fuggetta, 9 i µ ü¹ú öqr º p ípr» dùxp ±zˆn ÂÍ Žn ±zq xu²ÿu{ ¼É (Cerri and Fuggetta, 2007: 1-2) GE

10 2007) º rºq s ºu r ÁÈqºÉ } q o ¹ s Âv qºé } pu q k ºÉ f(q)ìr º ~ Ég h q  é ý q» qáè 30. ºp xu yz ˆ±z ³ Å q± v (Viega, 2004 Wheeler, 2011) š qy² q«o³ý y í q ³ ²q«fnn m q¼ ²üŸ º Âv r qº 31. j Î q²z ÍoÀ{ Ÿq j Î q } È Ÿ k dìr u r u ~ }x~r ² Å Â èé 三. 利用地理信息系统和地理空间分析促进教育 32. k (GIS) ˆn Œ ² ± É k q k{âé É ºwÉ npâ GIS ¼q k ñ k ±äg z q²z 33. GIS ö±p 20 d 60 x ºq ~ Í {Â É ö ~ y iâqrö y ËÄfp~ ö Í Ãs ~Œ qö GIS ³ d üy y ² GIS ~ x~ À} ²zrmÀ q Í 20 d 80 x 90 xë ü {d ºw k ºüÈ Ù x À Ê qž x ~ u ÁÈ(Nyerges et al. 2011: 4) A. 地理信息系统和地理空间分析 34. GIS uœ ² oz Ù gƒ j dœ ² yömq í k «q (Longley et al ) GIS n  ³²³ Äq m  Äq â Ìnr q Ìndf lå q qg q ²q ¹kì ƒ (GPS)q ü 35. ³ kÿåqgƒ²ÿ  º q ³ né ì qdr y ± IJ}³ m ²q ƒp kÿå ym²qî{ x q Œf x 10 GE

11 Ìn GIS ²Ÿ k{âé Í 36. ÃoŒ q k GIS örº±z² É n² GIS y É k q xžkè ÀÁÈ ²qØŒ v²f örp qdnf r 37. k{âé ± np k x x q j v k{âé ñ k ±äg z q²z É ³² k{â± x Å ÊùŒ ríq og(longley et al. 2005: 316 De Smith et al. 2010: 23 Heywood et al. 2006: 18) 38. GIS k{âé q ³ x q q j øø ü q{â Œ êh qrº Í (Rubenstein and Roy, 2011) ºpêh q ùxr Ÿj 39. ˆn GIS ²Ÿ k{âé qtg Žº Ä É k Ä À Ä q ÁÈ Ìn k{âé gì Í } ²q² q (Longley et al. 2006: 65-70, ) 40. GIS k{âé È µ Í n 500 Ž 600 uˆµnp Ä É k{â (Gibson, 2011) Ÿ 1 Êho GIS q q  n Ÿ 1 GIS q  n GIS ÉÃ~k «~k d/dø Ê Ê oor ¾o n í Ž q À (gg ) ~  «q Ù tø tø u{ «É Ž «Ä  }nq j «Û ³² Ê À døq «r~k ² Ê ²± Ê u ö oor g Ÿo Ê «Ø  ¹ ö gˆ ¾o Ê òæ Longley et al. (2005: 41-42) ESRI (2011a) E/CN.16/2012/3 B. 利用 GIS 和地理空间分析促进教育 41. g ³ STEM º GIS k{âé Œ ² gì v q Ë ²f ±tœ ö {Â É Œ ö j GIS p k ö ºÉqrº GIS iâqrp n GE

12 ey² k GIS ³² GIS k k GIS Ä ty g GIS vd g È º GIS È f r q Ç oö o GIS qúù  qä 42. ³² GIS kr p º g ºˆn ö {ÂŒ q² ³² { ( ~ ±Ù )fÿjüyº ùœ öj É gƒq «ö yiâqº 43. GIS k{âé ²Œ Ù mö É q Œ ü q ÇŽn Ÿ ýü v ²qŒ p STEM y rºšd g (NRC, 2005: 3-5 Kerski, 2008 Clements, 2004: 267) 44. v i eyg q{✠{ ƒ { ä { ƒ u³ž ƒˆö {¼zÙ ²fŒ v èé tyä g m º{ ƒq ÁÈg ºpƒˆ( ²qçà µ ) ( yoo ~ q ) Û( qz Î ) z( ƒ 1 ¹ i¼ µœ Í ) ( y }² ³ ¼r³rmui ) 4»àÅ GIS K-12 ßn ºp GIS qrº q È nˆ u{ko~ u{ Âko~v p GIS k{âé q ³ º qv ²Åi yrq Ç { k ä gk x~y ~y fèé k È~ yu Å { k u{ ²n²q Ä o gui ˆnö ui À ˆn²q ²{Èg ~{ GIS g K-12 z ˆfq±Ù q ±q â Ä né ¾ GIS GIS t k Š ö n qöë é ö GIS ±z ˆ Ê z GIS qxÿ õ ² ²z GIS yz Î qáè²ÿ u{ òæ United States National Research Council (2005) 45. ù Å { ä Ùpk qáè y záèxörºq º Œ ÁÈ ä Ùp k 12 GE

13 { ä DNA ö qu{ Ù d mgä È v èé q { ä v ºrp n ùxg mgä g öè qk (Clements, 2004: 267 Heywood, et al. 2006: 3 NRC, 2005: 1-5) 46. { èé ² s Œ ŽÙ ³²Í Îq»{ {ÂÉ q ² i ³² GIS k g GIS º Í p s qoz Ù j q{âg ( 4 Liben, 2006: 238 Kerski, 2008) 47. k GIS ³² GIS k Å ü ù²ÿ ùxåýf m m À} ºwt g f ² Áh q z Á k GIS q Èr ö r fk g ³ 48. q Í Ìn GIS q ² gì STEM f}  g êå fq k f³² GIS kqh º ˆn µ mé ²ÁÈqž pìn GIS q ² kº Ù(Innes, 2011) 49. go Ù GIS Šºp 2008 Çfo GIS ¼ lâ DVD r ˆn ùq ArcView 9.2GIS ±zâ xö PDF q i È ² oˆè Éöo ¼ v lq¼ ² ² l Ío ü¹ºµá¹ø q ö Ë ¼ Ç 700 ¼(Demirci Karaburun, 2009) 5 ²o GIS qh 5 fq GIS 2009 i-guess ² q u{ x GIS ¼ q öº u{ öq Ì Ì ØÌq º âfì öj GIS x~ y Ž j y q Á yf Í n n GIS qu{ Èâ gˆ ~k Ä É j v u{öj GIS Ù m dn k x{â Ån öj ü É ü { GIS Èr k ² ü qä k rü GIS Èr Ͳ ÁÈ Ço } Í ùx q q â ² GIS È q dö g²è Í ˆn Ÿ  òæ i-guess/ec(2009) GE

14 GIS qãv 50. ~ GIS q ² fäè Ë GIS È qt Œ Â í º g ö º~ ˆn Ìnº g ºq Œ  i ² Œ ²² qt fr e qáè (Stuart et al. 2009) GIS k Å µéœ Œ p m GIS qˆn n ³² GIS k i Ä yí Ä ²Á ²Ä o Ìn qù º k fãv â vz ±z ( Í}) ØqÐ «n q npj ùx GIS ±z d ÇÌnjx GPS ØŒ nq GIS n q  GIS Äq Å «º Ä Îɱi q À «q È «n ë GIS q 70% } i }Í q ² gwy GIS n²q  ŠGIS vd öjäxý~kt ºz GIS Î Ì ² ºqÁÈq È º µáã È~ Ç qï ² s ØÄx GIS o z(stuart et al ArcUser Online, 2011) } n z ³ u ± ùœe v GIS q n Ìn GIS öq Ê Ä n pšˆ z Ù³ p GPS ³ } GIS ù ² Ž ö w ² «n fºàáè(farah, 2011) C. 将 GIS 和空间思维纳入教育 克服这些障碍的备选政策需要处理 GIS 使用问题的各个方面 1. ü f²n GIS qt Œ 51. fˆn GIS { qh Ä Í }q GIS rºq } Ⱥ Êr GIS ³² GIS ²Ÿ ˆ q m k GIS z Ìn GIS g y k º ˆ¹ }o GIS, ùx pxçq GIS Ù ²Œ m q ²ùx ²È öº nqo (Nyerges et al. 2011: 4) 52. }Í GIS o gì Í GIS Í p q } Å º q }Í ²Ÿ GIS Ùp Î GIS g y k º f yè fùœrmqz 2. z GIS q 53. o GIS fq ²vg Âqu{ s Ãs ³ fq n p n ³ ö q v oá ü u{ } ºfq qºé 14 GE

15 3. é GIS 54. k{â d g «²Ÿ Ë r ««ü µáq GIS n iâé ùx À² ÁÈ f Á««~ ³ } k x ƒ ˆ GIS np¹ºn²q f { f ùn ˆ ~k ˆ q o²fø ~ ««Ë ö~kˆ r f (Shanley, 2007: 17) 4. ˆ ü 55. ˆ ~ º x ² Èröv r ž ² GIS k{âé qœ ²ˆ Œ ˆõ Šˆ ~ k qg Ä r qpù(kifuonyi, 2009) ² qšü ¹k k{â ~kh (GGIM)Ž ² fˆ š GGIM d o f ~  iâø º¹k k{â qé Ìr º ~ k{â qö y µá ü Ù x k«{üè qáè(ggim, 2011) 56. GIS k{âé š y lë Å q ² STEM q ³ «r ² ³ «r Ä t Œ z } u ²Ä (êä êê)~ º xž ü 四. 研究结果和建议 57. µé o v qu{ Ç ÊºÀ È y ²ö ~ A. 研究结果 (a) š y lë Î u ÙqefpŸ Í y Ùp u{ Åq qâí (b) GIS k{âé x~ µá ͈n n ö ü kùxìn GIS, Ùö à ki Á y Ä q{✠(c) ³² GIS k ³ GIS f ² äq Í ö (d) ˆ ³ É ² k²z uä dä t Œ z u } GE

16 B. 建议 (a) ºwÌr º ü Âv ˆn ³ «rq u ÂÍ( ³ n ºw Ä ) (b) }Í ü Î ¼ qçföºùö x ¼ 1. (a) }Í ùxùú u{ Ê º«Ù{ Ø ˆ¹º«Ùqu{ùx «(b) }Í v x q «¹º u{ â ¹º«Ùq Í u{ ñ (c) ü Âx~ ÙÚ Âü ¹º«Ùqu{ ä ˆºù ˆ «v º p 2. š y lë 3. GIS (a) ü ºwÌr º ü v š y lëqg «ùÿ (b) ü ÙÚ u{ ˆ (NREN) È ü º ±Îuü Ž i ŽÉyˆ Ø v j«qù (a) n q } â GIS ö{â q k z ˆö ü{â GIS q } } ³² GIS ² fq{â ¼ (b) Á««~ ³ } k ˆ¹}ùxx ƒ GIS (c) }Í GIS o gì Í GIS p Í } Å º q iâq Âü Œ ² }Í q GIS Ùp Îwy q k Ùp Œ (d) }Í ùxùúy µáõ Î k{â q² z lë}¹ºµá ùx y µáq{dü g k{â ˆº p ˆ 16 GE

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