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1 ISSUE Chief Editor: WY Ng Editors: KC Teo, YH Gan, SL Kong, A Fadzal, R Najah, SR Tai, CF Chong, CL Chook The Performance of Swine Breeding Herds in Malaysia in 2017 By Dr. Paiboon Sungnak, D.V.M., InterCons 3P Co., Ltd., The objective of this article is to compare the production figures of swine breeding herds in Malaysia between farms less than 1,000 sows (7 farms; 3,646 sows) and farms more than 1,000 sows (8 farms; 15,237 sows) in 2017 (Table 1). The performance figures from the PigLIVE software were 12 monthrolling averages summarized from 15 farms (18,883 sows in total, almost 10% of sow population in Malaysia). Table 1. Comparison of production figures of swine breeding herd between farms less than 1,000 sows and farms more than 1,000 sows in Performance index Farm less than 1,000 sows (Min-Max) Farm more than 1,000 sows (Min-Max) Differences (more than vs less than 1,000 sows) Number of farms Number of sows 3,646 15,237 18,883 Breeding performance Average repeat services, % Average weaning-1st service interval, days Average sows bred by 7 days, % Farrowing performance Average parity of farrowed sows, parities Average pigs per litter Average pigs born alive per litter Average still born pigs, % Average mummies, % 19.8 ( ) 7.1 ( ) 88.2 ( ) 4.1 ( ) 11.2 ( ) 10.1 ( ) 9.0 ( ) 1.1 ( ) 11.3 ( ) 6.4 ( ) 85.5 ( ) 3.9 ( ) 11.9 ( ) 11.0 ( ) 6.0 ( ) 1.4 ( )

2 Performance index Average born alive <7 pigs per litter, % Average birth weight, kg Average farrowing rate, % Average farrow-farrow interval, days Average litters/mated female/year, LSY Weaning performance Average pigs weaned per litter weaned Average pigs weaned per litter farrowed Average pre-weaning mortality, % Average weaning weight, kg Average lactating length, days Average pig weaned/sow/year, PSY Population Farm less than 1,000 sows (Min-Max) 14.4 ( ) 1.5 ( ) 74.2 ( ) 157 ( ) 2.20 ( ) 9.5 ( ) 8.8 ( ) 10.0 ( ) 6.7 ( ) 26.6 ( ) 19.4 ( ) Farm more than 1,000 sows (Min-Max) 6.7 ( ) 1.5 ( ) 79.6 ( ) 152 ( ) 2.26 ( ) 10.4 ( ) 10.0 ( ) 8.4 ( ) 6.8 ( ) 25.7 ( ) 22.7 ( ) Differences (more than vs less than 1,000 sows) Average sows parities ( ) ( ) -0.2 Average replacement rate, % ( ) ( ) +6.0 Average culling rate, % ( ) ( ) +7.4 Average parity of culled sows, parities ( ) ( ) -0.6 Average death sow, % ( ) ( ) -0.4 In 2017, most of the farms were increasing their productivity in term of PSY. Farms more than 1,000 sows have higher average PSY than farms less than 1,000 sows (22.7 pigs vs 19.4 pigs). LSY is nearly the same for both category farms (2.26 litters vs 2.20 litters). The average number of pigs weaned per farrowed sow has a big different between farms more than 1,000 sows and farms less than 1,000 sows (10.0 pigs vs 8.8 pigs). These are certain factors that contribute to the differences in the farm performance. Please contact PeterLabs representatives for more information

3 The importance of omega-3 fatty acids in animal and human nutrition Interest in the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has grown significantly in recent years. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) are key n-3 PUFA derived from marine sources, while alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) is obtained from plant material. Observational studies have shown that certain human populations who have a diet rich in marine oils have remarkably low rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and other inflammatory conditions, even though the diet may actual be high in fat and low in fruit and vegetables. These findings have underlined the benefits of n-3 PUFA for optimum development and health. As n-3 PUFA are essential nutrients for vertebrates, they need to be obtained from the diet. However, typical animal diets can be low in n-3 PUFA and, although some ALA and linoleic acid (LOA, 18:2n-6) can be converted to the more physiologically important EPA and DHA, the degree to which this occurs will be limited and will vary from species to species. n-3 PUFA are stored in cell membranes and have two key functions; 1) Structural cell components; 2) As substrates for the production of signalling molecules (eicosanoids; e.g. prostaglandins), which are mediators of immune responses, such as inflammation. n-3 PUFA are generally considered to be anti-inflammatory. Sows Studies have shown that n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation can improve pig performance. Supplementing pregnant sows with n-3 PUFA rich salmon oil from day 60 of gestation was shown to increase the DHA content of the brain and retina of their piglets, with relative brain weight being greatest at a dietary salmon oil content of 1% (Rooke et al., 2001). It can be assumed that a heavier brain would equate to better development and so these piglets are likely to show greater functional capability after birth. Continuous supplementation of sow diets with 1% marine-sourced n-3 PUFA from day 60 of gestation until day 21 of lactation had increased colostral IgG concentration and resulted in piglets that were heavier at weaning (Mateo et al., 2009). Optomega powder made from Scottish Salmon oil. Salmon oil has higher content of DHA with the most biologically active form. 3

4 A similar study also showed that fish oil supplementation of sows decreased pre-weaning piglet mortality (Rooke et al., 2001), while further work has shown that feeding fish oils to sows may increase their piglet growth after weaning and litter size in the subsequent parity (Tanghe and De Smet, 2013). Boars In the year of 2001, experiment of Rooke et al. proved that boar spermatozoa characteristics (including concentration, vitality and motility) were increased due to fish oil / DHA supplementation. Poultry There has been a lot of interest in n-3 PUFA, particularly during the pre and post-hatch period for broiler chickens to establish optimal nutrient status. Early exposure to essential n-3 PUFA can influence energy provision, cell membrane status, production of inflammatory mediators and antioxidant status of chicks (Cherian, 2015). All of these have the potential to promote the health and performance of breeder and layer hens, and broiler chickens. However, more recently the main interest in n-3 PUFA supplementation of poultry diets has been driven by the desire to produce n-3 PUFA enriched egg and meat products, which will have greater health value for human consumption. In layers, Optomega powder with 2.5% inclusion rate in diet has been proven to increase the n-3 PUFA content of laying hen eggs. Commercial trials in the Philippines, Spain and the UK have demonstrated its ability to enrich the n-3 PUFA content by up to 380%. In broilers, Optomega powder has demonstrated its ability to reduce Campylobacter jejuni colonisation in the intestine. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA may reduce inflammation in the intestine and help to maintain gut integrity. Reduction of Campylobacter spp. in live animals can reduce contamination of meat, which may represent an added health benefit from Optomega powder supplementation of chickens for human consumption. Optomega powder Optomega powder is an n-3 PUFA rich, marine oilbased powder product from Anpario. Carrier technology enables Optomega 50 to be a concentrated oil product but with free-flowing powder characteristics that allow its easy use in the feed mill and incorporation into finished feeds. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for pigs, poultry and humans and must, therefore, be provided via the diet. As vital components of cells and signalling molecules, they are involved in numerous physiological processes, which can enhance animal health and performance. Moreover, the recognised health benefits of n-3 PUFA for humans is increasing the desire for enriched animal products. Typical animal and human diets can be low in n-3 PUFA, thus requiring dietary supplementation with products such as Anpario s Optomega powder. 4

5 Antibiotics role in livestock industry The discovery of antibiotics is considered among the most important advances of modern science. Since then, it becomes a valuable tool to control and treat diseases in human and also livestock. Without doubt, the present of antibiotics have saved millions of lives. However, antibiotics should be Handle with Care, as stated in the theme of Antibiotics Awareness Week The increasing emergence of bacteria that developed resistant had become a public health and global concern. Antibiotic resistance can become a threat to human and animal, where without potent antibiotic common infection such as cold may also lead to death. In livestock industry, present of antibiotic resistant bacteria will cause prolong treatment and increase cost of production. What is antibiotic resistance? Antibiotic resistance is the ability of bacteria to resist being killed by antibiotics. In other word mean that antibiotic is useless against the antibiotic resistance bacteria. As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, animal experience longer period of illness and require more expensive drugs to cure. How antibiotic resistances happen? 1. Some bacteria are naturally resistant to antibiotic. 2. Antibiotic kill bad and good bacteria; leaving resistance bacteria. 3. Survived bacteria grow and causing the illness again. Among the bacteria population, there will be some bacteria that able to survive after antibiotic treatment. These are the bacteria that eventually multiple and pass the resistance gene to its offspring. In many places, misuse of antibiotics happen in human and animals, which greatly speed up this process. Example of misuse include when human get viral infections like cold or flu, naturally they will be self act doctor and buy antibiotic from pharmacy over the counter. As for example in livestock industry, the used of antibiotic growth promoter promote the survival of resistant bacteria when sub-therapeutic dose is used. 5

6 Antibiotics are given to livestock animals. Antibiotic resistant bacteria developed in animal s gut. Antibiotics are given to patients, which may result in antibiotic-resistant bacteria develop in the gut. How antibiotic resistance spread? Antibiotic resistant bacteria reaches human via food, environment (water, soil, air) or by direct human - animal contact. Patient goes to hospital or clinic. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria spread to other patients via poor hygiene and unclean facilities. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria spread to general public. How to slow down the spread of antibiotic resistance? 1. Prevent infections - With good husbandry & sanitary practice in the farm, the bacteria load in the environment will reduce. When bacteria load reduce, animal will be less likely to get infection, thus reduce antibiotic usage. 2. Prudent use of antibiotics, we should only use antibiotic to treat the sick animals, control infections or prevent animal at risk from becoming sick. 3. Use of alternative product to antibiotics mainly function by maintain the gut microflora and thus gut health. The most commonly used product types are pre-biotics, pro-biotics, organic acids, herbs or phytobiotics. 6

7 New Product : STODI by Natural Remedies 7

8 > ISSUE 1 / 2018 New Product : STODI by Natural Remedies Composition A polyherbal loose dropping binder to regularize the increased peristalsis Action Reduces the fluidity in the intestinal lumen Checks the hypersecretion Binds the excess water Maintains the normal functioning of cecal microflora Benefits Minimizes the loose dropping due to Peak production / growth Dietary error High environmental temperature Indications To prevent / control the non-infectious diarrhoea As supportive to treat the infectious diarrhoea along with specific treatment Usage Poultry For prevention: 1 kg per ton of feed For control: 2 3 kg per ton of feed, depending upon the severity, with or without antimicrobials depending upon type of diarrhoea Swine For healthy gut function & prevention of diarrhoea: 1.5 kg per ton of feed For disturbed gut function & control of diarrhoea: 2 3 kg per ton of feed Presentation 25 kg bag 8

9 > ISSUE 1 / 2018 Victam Asia 2018 (Bangkok), Mar

10 > ISSUE 1 / 2018 Livestock Asia 2018 (Kuala Lumpur), Apr

11 ISSUE Chief Editor: WY Ng Editors: KC Teo, YH Gan, SL Kong, A Fadzal, R Najah, SR Tai, CF Chong, CL Chook 2017 年马来西亚种猪性能 By Dr. Paiboon Sungnak, D.V.M., InterCons 3P Co., Ltd., 本报导主要是为了比较 2017 年马来西亚少于 1,000 头母猪 (7 家农场 ;3,646 头母猪 ) 和多于 1,000 头母猪 (8 家农场 ;15,237 头母猪 ) 的农场生产数值 这些数值是全年 12 个月内的总平均值, 由 15 家农场的 PigLIVE 软件取得 ( 总共 18,883 头母猪 ), 是马来西亚大约 10% 的母猪头数 图表一 :2017 年少于 1,000 头母猪与多于 1,000 头母猪的农场生产数值比较 生产数值 少于 1, 头母猪的农场 ( 最低 - 最高 ) 多于 1, 头母猪的农场 ( 最低 - 最高 ) 差数 ( 多于和少于 1, 头母猪的对比 ) 农场数量 母猪头数 3,646 15,237 18,883 配种性能 平均重发情, % 平均离乳母猪首次发情的间距, 天 平均 7 天内配种母猪, % 生产性能 分娩母猪之平均胎数, 胎 平均每胎出生仔猪, 头 平均每胎活仔猪, 头 平均死胎数量, % 平均黑胎数量, % 19.8 ( ) 7.1 ( ) 88.2 ( ) 4.1 ( ) 11.2 ( ) 10.1 ( ) 9.0 ( ) 1.1 ( ) 11.3 ( ) 6.4 ( ) 85.5 ( ) 3.9 ( ) 11.9 ( ) 11.0 ( ) 6.0 ( ) 1.4 ( )

12 生产数值 平均每胎少于 7 头活仔猪, % 平均出生体重, 公斤 平均母猪分娩率, % 平均母猪两胎之间距, 天 平均胎数 / 配种母猪 / 年 ( L S Y ), 胎 离乳表现 平均离乳仔猪 / 离乳窝数, 头 平均离乳仔猪 / 出生窝数, 头 平均离乳前死亡率, % 平均离乳仔猪的体重, 公斤 平均哺育期, 天 平均离乳仔猪头数 / 母猪 / 年 ( P S Y ), 头 母猪头数 平均母猪胎数, 胎 平均替代率, % 平均淘汰率, % 平均淘汰母猪胎数, 胎 平均母猪死亡率, % 少于 1, 头母猪的农场 ( 最低 - 最高 ) 14.4 ( ) 1.5 ( ) 74.2 ( ) 157 ( ) 2.20 ( ) 9.5 ( ) 8.8 ( ) 10.0 ( ) 6.7 ( ) 26.6 ( ) 19.4 ( ) 3.3 ( ) 44.0 ( ) 35.7 ( ) 5.3 ( ) 6.0 ( ) 多于 1, 头母猪的农场 ( 最低 - 最高 ) 6.7 ( ) 1.5 ( ) 79.6 ( ) 152 ( ) 2.26 ( ) 10.4 ( ) 10.0 ( ) 8.4 ( ) 6.8 ( ) 25.7 ( ) 22.7 ( ) 3.1 ( ) 50.0 ( ) 43.1 ( ) 4.7 ( ) 5.6 ( ) 差数 ( 多于和少于 1, 头母猪的对比 ) 于 2017 年, 大多数的农场生产值提升了, 尤其是每年每头母猪的平均离乳仔猪头数 ( PSY) 多于 1,000 头母猪的农场平均 PSY 比少于 1,000 头母猪的农场来得高 (22.7 头 vs 19.4 头 ) 每年每头配种母猪的平均胎数 (LSY) 在两组农场对比的成绩相似 (2.26 胎 vs 2.20 胎 ) 相较下, 平均离乳仔猪之出生窝数在两组农场的差异大 (10.0 头 vs 8.8 头 ) 当中的许多潜在因素造成如此的区别 欲知更多详情, 请联络 PeterLabs 销售与技术人员

13 ω-3 脂肪酸在动物和人类营养中的重要性 近年来, 人们对于 omega-3 多不饱和脂肪酸 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)) 益处的兴趣显着地增长 二十碳五烯酸 (EPA,20: 5n-3) 和二十二碳六烯酸 (DHA,22:6n-3) 是主要的多不饱和脂肪酸 (n-3 PUFA), 源自深海洋, 而 α- 亚麻酸 (ALA,18:3n-3) 则从植物中获取 观察性研究表明, 采食富含深海油类的群众, 持有较低的心血管疾病, 糖尿病和其它发炎性疾病发生率, 尽管他们饮食中的脂肪含量高, 水果和蔬菜含量也低 这些研究结果强调了 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸可为人体带来最佳的发展和健康的好处 由于 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸是脊椎动物的必需营养素, 需从饮食中摄取 然而, 典型的动物日粮可以是低 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸, 尽管一些 ALA 和亚油酸 (LOA,18:2n-6) 可以被转化为对生理上更加重要的二十碳五烯酸 (EPA) 和二十二碳六烯酸 (DHA), 但这种情况的发生率有限, 并因动物的品种而异 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸存储于细胞膜中, 并具有两个关键功能 ; 1) 细胞结构组件 ; 2) 作为生产信号分子的反应物 ( 类二十烷酸 ; 例如前列腺素 ), 其是免疫反应的介体, 如炎症的介质 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸通常被认为是有抗炎作用的 生育母猪研究表明 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸日粮补充剂可以提高猪只性能 从妊娠的第 60 天起给予怀孕母猪补充富有 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸的鲑鱼油, 成绩显示提高了其仔猪脑和视网膜的 DHA 含量, 相较仔猪脑的重量而言, 日粮摄食 1% 鲑鱼油的最重 (Rooke et al.,2001) 假设较重的脑部等于拥有更良好的脑部发育, 因此这些仔猪在出生后将可发挥更理想的生长表现 从妊娠的第 60 天开始一直到哺乳的第 21 天, 连续为母猪的日粮补充含 1% 深海来源的 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸可增加母猪初乳 IgG 的浓度, 使其仔猪在离乳时的体重也能提高 (Mateo et al., 2009) Optomega powder 是由苏格兰鲑鱼鱼油制成 鲑鱼鱼油含有高量及极高生物活性的 DHA 成分 13

14 一项类似的研究也表明, 为母猪的日粮补充鱼油可减少仔猪离乳后的死亡率 ( Rooke et al., 2001), 而进一步的探讨发现, 喂饲鱼油予母猪可加强仔猪离乳后的持续成长和母猪随后的产仔数 (Tanghe and De Smet,2013) 公猪在 2001 年, Rooke et al. 的实验证实为公猪补充鱼油或 DHA, 可增加公猪精子的特性 ( 包括精液的浓度, 活力和动力 ) 禽类许多业者对 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸的兴趣, 都特别着重在肉鸡孵化前和孵化后的阶段, 以建立最佳的营养状态 在早期提供必要的 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸可影响能量的供应, 细胞膜的状态, 炎症介质的产生和小鸡抗氧化的能力 (Cherian,2015) 这些生理性能都能促进种鸡, 蛋鸡和肉鸡的健康状态和生长性能 然而, 近期为禽类提供 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸的日粮主要是为了生产富含 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸的鸡蛋和鸡肉制品, 这无疑给了消费者更大的 健康 价值 在蛋鸡方面, 饲料中添加 2.5% 的 Optomega powder 已被证实能够增加鸡蛋里 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸的含量 在菲律宾, 西班牙和英国的农场试验证明了鸡蛋中 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸含量可高达至 380% 在肉鸡方面, Optomega powder 论证可减少肠道中空肠弯曲杆菌定殖的能力 补充 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸可以减少肠道中的炎症, 并有助于保持肠道的完整性 减少肉鸡体内的弯曲杆菌菌属可降低鸡肉的污染 这可是人们在食用补充了 Optomega powder 的鸡肉所得的额外 健康 好处 Optomega powder Optomega powder 是由 Anpario 公司生产的粉状产品, 取自于深海鱼的 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸 载体技术足使 Optomega powder 成为高浓缩的鱼油产品, 且具有粉状自由流动的特性, 使其易在饲料厂中使用, 并融合在饲料成品中 ω-3 多不饱和脂肪酸是家禽, 猪只和人类的必需营养素, 因此必须通过日常饮食摄取 作为细胞和信号分子的重要组成部分, 它们参于许多生理过程, 这可以增强动物的健康和性能 此外, n- 3 多不饱和脂肪酸被公认的健康效益增加了人们对富营养动物产品的需求 典型的动物日粮和人类的日常饮食通常只含有低的 n-3 多不饱和脂肪酸, 因此人们需要从膳食中摄取富营养产品, 例如采用 Anpario Optomega powder 所生产的产品 14

15 抗生素在畜牧业中的作用 抗生素的发现被认为是现代科学最重要的进展之一 自那时起, 它成为抑制或治疗人类和牲畜疾病的宝贵工具 无庸置疑抗生素的存在确实挽救了数百万人的生命 然而, 抗生素应该被 谨慎处理, 犹如 2016 年抗生素意识周的主题所述 越来越多的细菌已被发觉对多种常用的抗生素产生抵抗性而影响公众的健康并成为全球关注的问题 抗生素耐药性可成为人类和动物的威胁, 如果没有强效的抗生素, 常见的感染如感冒也可导致死亡 在畜牧业中, 抗生素抗耐药性的细菌存在将延治和增加生产成本 什么是抗生素耐药性? 抗生素耐药性说明细菌有抵抗被抗生素杀死的能力 换句话说, 抗生素对于抗生素耐药性细菌是无用的 然而, 当标准性的抗生素治疗变得无效, 动物将经历更长的患病期并且需要更昂贵的药物治愈 抗生素耐药性如何发生? 1. 一些细菌具备先天性 抵制抗生素的能力 2. 抗生素杀灭坏菌和良 菌 ; 余留具抗药性的细 菌 3. 幸存的抗药性细菌繁 殖生长, 并再次引发疾 病 在细菌群体当中, 总有某些细菌能够在受到抗生素治疗后存活下来 这些最终能生存的细菌将持续繁殖并将其抗药性基因传递给下一代 很多时候, 滥用抗生素在人类和动物上, 间接加快了抗生素的耐药性 滥用药物的例子包括当人类得到病毒细菌感染如感冒或伤风, 自然将自己当成 医生, 随意从西药房柜台购买抗生素 在畜牧业的例子譬如, 长期以微剂量抗生素作为促长剂将无形中促进耐药性细菌的存活率 15

16 提供抗生素给予畜禽 抗生素耐药性细菌在动物肠道中滋长 抗生素耐药性如何扩散? 向病患提供抗生素, 间接使抗生素耐药性细菌在肠道中滋长 抗生素耐药性细菌通过食物, 环境 ( 水, 土壤, 空气 ) 或经由人类与动物的直接接触传达予人类 病患到医院或诊所 抗生素耐药性细菌由不良卫生和不干净的设施扩散给其他病患 抗生素耐药性细菌持续扩散给公众 如何减缓抗生素耐药性扩散? 1. 预防感染 - 良好的饲养和卫生习惯可大量地减少农场环境中的细菌 当细菌减少时, 同时也降低动物被细菌感染的机率, 从而减少抗生素的应用 2. 谨慎使用抗生素 我们仅使用抗生素于治疗动物, 抑制感染, 或预防动物生病 3. 使用抗生素替代品 - 替代产品主要通过维持肠道菌群平衡而带来的健康效果 最常使用的产品类型包括益生元, 益生菌, 有机酸, 草药 / 植物源生物或其他相关的替代品 16

17 斩新产品 : STODI by Natural Remedies 17

18 > > ISSUE 1 / 2018 新产品上架 : STODI by Natural Remedies STOD The Definite Diarrhoea Domination 成份草本腹泻收敛剂能促进肠道的规律性蠕动 作用模式 减少肠腔内的流动性 检测过度分泌 吸附过多的水分 维持盲肠菌群的平衡性 益处帮助减低腹泻 产蛋高峰 / 成长 日粮更异 高温环境 方针 预防 / 控制非感染性下痢 补助感染性腹泻的针对性治疗 使用量禽类 预防剂量 :1 公斤每吨饲料 治疗剂量 :2-3 公斤每吨饲料, 视情况而定, 有或无使用抗生素及腹泻的类型 猪只 保护肠道健康 & 预防下痢问题 :1.5 公斤每吨饲料 修复肠道功能 & 控制下痢问题 :2-3 公斤每吨饲料 包装 25 公斤 18

19 Victam Asia 2018 (Bangkok), Mar

20 Livestock Asia 2018 (Kuala Lumpur), Apr