鋁污泥迴流操作對綜合性工業廢水色度去除之影響

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1 /12/19 / 147

2 /12/19 / 148

3 /12/19 / Tel: ext.54; Fax: COD SS 30%~35% (PAC) COD 5% SS 2340mg/l4680 mg/l Sludge Recirculation with Aluminum-group Coagulants Applied in Coagulation Process of the Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Enhancement of Color Removal Shin-shou Liu 1, Tsun-teng Liang 2 1 Instuctror, Departament of Environmental Engineering, Van Nung Institute of Technology 2 Associate processor, Departament of Environmental Engineering, Van Nung Institute of Technology 149

4 /12/19 / Abstract In this study, the jar test experiment was applied for simulating the coagulation process of the wastewater treatment plant with sludge recirculation. The samples of wastewater and sludge were taken from the integrally industrial wastewater treatment plant of Chung-Li, Taiwan. The results showed that with sludge recirculation the enhancement of color removal was enhanced up to 35% compared with no sludge recirculation. And, the color removal enhancement of coagulant aluminum sulfate was approximately two times better than that of coagulant polyaluminum chloride (PACl). At the same moment, the COD was slightly increased about 5%, but the removal of suspended solids was rarely affected by the sludge recirculation. The optimum dosages of return sludge were found approximately between 2340 mg/l and 4680 mg/l with different water samples and different coagulants in the study. Key words: Jar test, sludge recirculation, true color 4000 (Karthikeyan, 2002; Pala and Tokat, 2002) (Koyuncu, 2002) (Kim T., Park, Lee, Shin and Kim S., 2002)UV/H 2 O 2 ( Espinoza and Litter, 2002) (Jung, Yoon, Chung and Lee, 2002) ( 1989) (Chu, W. 1999) COD 150

5 /12/19 / (nuclei) COD SS () (heterogeneous nucleation ) (MLSS) COD 1 A in B in S 1 S 2 B out A out 1 () 151

6 /12/19 / 1 A in 1 S 1 1 B in 1 S 2 () 1 A in 1 S 1 1 B in 1 S 2 (PAC)10% stock solution SG1.19 ((H 2 SO 4 ) H 2 O)7.5% stock solution SG Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste water, 19th Ed., Method 2120E 1. ph COD (mg/l) Color (ADMI) SS(mg/l) (Ain ) (B in ) 1(S 1 ) 1(S 2 ) () 50mg/l~300mg/l PAC 2 MLSS PAC MLSS y = Ln(x) R 2 =0.98PACl y = 15.22Ln(x)-28.72R 2 = y = 0.007X+5.88R 2 =0.97 () 152

7 /12/19 / 2 SS 3 MLSS 4 PAC150mg/l 1220TCUCOD544mg/l 8660mg/l 0%~35% 0 ~ 3031mg/l 288 TCU 3031mg/l 96TCU 16% 153

8 /12/19 / COD(mg/l) 4 COD () mg/l (46800mg/l) 2340 ~ 4680mg/ l COD 4680mg/ l COD 9360 mg/ l 2340mg/ l 5% 6 PAC 150mg/l 2340mg/ l COD 4680mg/ l 4680mg/ l COD PAC 7 PAC 2 154

9 /12/19 / 2 Color (TCU) A in A out Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 14H 2 O PACl COD (mg/l) Color (TCU) 243 (55%) 125 (76%) ( ) COD (mg/l) 99 (62%) 70 (73%) Color (TCU) 86 (84%) 66 (88%) COD (mg/l) 111 (57%) 114 (54%) Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 14H 2 O (54%) 203 (62%) 137 (89%) 227 (58%) B in ~ B out PACl (76%) (65%) (92%) (60%) ( ) % A in A iou B in B ou 1 1. (SS) PAC y = Ln(x) R 2 =0.98 (SS) 2. (PAC) y = 15.22Ln(x)-28.72R 2 = mg/lg 58% 3. y = 0.007X+5.88R 2 = %~35% mg/l4680 mg/l 6. COD 5% SS 7. PAC

10 /12/19 / 1. APHA, AWWA & WPCF, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th edition, Method 2120E, 2-7 to 2-8, APHA, Wahington DC, USA(1989). 2. Pala, A. and Tokat, E., Color removal from cotton textile industry wastewater in an activated sludge system with various additives, Water Research 36, (2002). 3. Koyuncu, I., Reactive dye removal in dye/salt mixtures by nanofilitration membranes containing vinylsulphone dyes: effect of feed concentration and cross flow velocity, Desalination 143, (2002). 4. Al-Monmani, F., Touraud, E., Degorce-Dumas, J. R., Roussy J. and Thomas, O. Biodegradability of enhancement of textile dyes and textile wastewater by VUV photolysis, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 153, (2002). 5. Jung, J., Yoon, J., Chung, H. and Lee, M., Radition treatment of secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant, Radiation Physics and Chemistry 65(4-5), (2002). 6. (1988~1989) 7. Chu, W., Lead metal removal by recycled alum sludge, Water Research 33(13), (1999). 156

11 /12/19 / / 200CMM MEKIPA PGMEPGMEA THC ppm O3/ H2O2 ph H2O2/O ~ 0.45THC kg/hr THC 0.1 kg/hr PSI VOCs NOx 157

12 /12/19 / PU 1 PU DMF DMF 1 VOCs 1 158

13 /12/19 / VOC VOC / 20-50% 2 GAS PHASE G-L film LIQUID PHASE CO 2 CO 2 Acids Inorganic salts Oxidants Intermediates Wastewater Pollutants VOC odorous Oxidized Intermediates g/l 1/ % (3) direct reactions radical reactions H 2 O 2 UVOH - (free radicals) OHradical 2.3 volts 1 2 ozone and OHradical (M -1 sec -1 ) 159

14 /12/19 / H 2 O 2 OH - OHradical H 2 O 2 /O 3 (moles/mole) (3) H 2 O 2 OH radical H 2 O 2 UVOH - OHradical AOP (Advanced Oxidation Processes ) O3/H 2 O 2 1 Oxidant OH Ozone H2O2 KMnO4 HOCl Cl2 ClO2 Potential (volts) ozone and OH radical (4) Ozone OHradical Alcohols Ketones Aldehydes Carboxylic Acid N-containing organics S-containing organics

15 /12/19 / 3 ( ) O3 / H2O2 MEKIPA 8L diffuser 3 161

16 /12/19 / 3 3 ozone monitor GC/FIDTOC ph ph meter 4 VOC VOC O 3 OH radical 3 m 0.3 m 400 L 6 3 m 0.24 m 1 in ( k7 ) 274 m2/m3 2 m (OZONIA CFS-1) 80 g H2O2 NaOH H2O2 ph online GC/FID( 9800) UV detector(pci-wedeco MC-400) (Iodometric method) 162

17 /12/19 / 4 PFR(plug flow reactor) CSTR(continue stirred tank reactor) G/L G/L > 0.5 CSTR (5) h/d h/d = 10 CSTR (3) Bubble-ColumnG/L > 0.5h/d = 10 CSTR PFR () 200 CMM( 5) THC 5 THC ppm IPAMEKAcetone2-Butanone 1-Methoxy 2-propanolButyl AcetateEthyl Lactate IPA MEK () FH-ER4 OK73 163

18 /12/19 / OK73 30% PGMEA 70%PGMEFH-ER4 45%MEK 55%Ethyl Lactate PGMEA MEK PGMEA mbarmek 78 mm Hg PGMEA MEK 6 FH-ER4 OK73 1 COD FH-ER4 OK mg/l ph 9O mg/minh 2 O 2 / O 3 1/10 30 FH-ER4 COD 49% OK73 42% OK CMM 1.0 COD(C/C0) FH 1-OK time(min.) 6 FH-ER4 OK73 COD 164

19 /12/19 / () 1. THC (6)(7) ph H 2 O 2 /O 3 THC H 2 O 2 ph ph 10 (inorganic carbon HCO - 3 CO 2-3 ) THC THC H 2 O 2 H 2 O 2 ph H 2 O 2 /O [4, 5] 8 H 2 O 2 13 g O 3 /g THC 1.1 g O 3 /g THC 60% ~ 70% lpm 1-2 CMM 80-90% 4 40% 7 Exhaust 1 MEK Exhaust 2 MEK IPA 7 ()

20 /12/19 / m 5 m 3 m 6 m PLC 3 kg/hr 3 m min kg/hr lpm 120 lpm 250CMM () 8 60~90% 75% H 2 O 2 THC 10% 85% 8 1. MEK IPA 95% 1g MEK IPA 1-2 g 166

21 /12/19 / 2. ph H2O2/O3 THC 5 CMM 15 lpm 95% MEK 25 mg/lipa 13 mg/l g/hr VOC 1,800 2,450 (VOC + ) 1,000 1,300, Back Up 800-1,000 1, (2000) 3. C. Gottschalk, J. A. Libra, A., Saupe, Ozonation of Water and Waste Water: A Practical Guide to Understanding Ozone and its Application, Wiley-VCH, Germany(2000). 4. Guy Martin and Paul Laffort, Odors and Deodorization in the Environment, VCH Publishers, Inc.(1994). 5. Marinas, B. J., Liang, S., Aieta, E. M., Modeling Hydrodynamics and Ozone Residual Distribution in a Pilot- Scale Ozone Bubble-Diffuser Contactor, Journal AWMA(1993). 6. VOC VOCs (2000) 7. Hsin-Hsien Wu, Shu-Sung Lin and Ching-Chih Lai, Control of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry by Wet Scrubbing and Ozonation, The Air & Waste Management Association's 94th Annual Conference & Exhibition(2001). 8. Ernst-Martin Billing, Michael E. Mullins and D. W. Hubbard, Behavior of a Packed Column as an Ozonation Reactor for the removal of Trichloroethylene from Water, Proceedings of the 5 th International Symposium Chemical Oxidation: Technologies for the Nineties(1995). 9. Langlais, B., Reckhow, D. A., Brink, D. R. Ozone in water treatment: application and engineering; Lewis Publisher, Inc., MA, USA(1989). 167

22 /12/19 / % % Battery Recycling in Taiwan Hsiung-Wen Chen Director, Bureau of Solid Waste Management, Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan, R.O.C. 168

23 /12/19 / Abstract Under the Waste Disposal Act of 1988, Taiwan implemented the first extended producer responsibility (EPR) legislation to collect and recycle various municipal wastes. In 1990, mercury-containing batteries and lead acid batteries were listed as products subject to the EPR scheme. Manufacturers, importers and sellers of listed products were required to achieve the collection and recycling rates set by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA). In March 1997, the new amendments to the Waste Disposal Act changed the EPR scheme to require the responsible manufacturers or importers to pay recycling fees instead of fulfilling the mandatory collection and recycling targets. Besides, labeling requirement is applied to batteries containing mercury or cadmium. The retailers, on the other hand, are required to take back the used dry batteries from consumers. The recycling fees are paid to the EPA-administered recycling funds, which are used to subsidize the costs of collection and recycling, to subsidize or award recycling systems, to reimburse municipalities for waste disposal, to pay for the costs of third-party certification, and for other uses related to recycling. In 1998, Ni-Cd batteries for general consumer uses are added to the EPR product list. From November 1999, the EPR regime was expanded to cover all kinds of dry battery chemistries. The volume collected in 2001 is 586 tons for dry batteries of various chemistries. In the mean time, the collection rate is 6.2% for dry batteries. Despite the legislation, the collection rate achieved is low for dry batteries. This can be attributed to the relatively small size of dry batteries, which are often disposed together with general garbage. To raise public awareness of dry battery recycling, EPA initiated a nation-wide school education program in late Besides, the subsidy rate for dry battery collectors was doubled from March The volume collected in 2002 is 923 tons, and collection rate is 10.3% for dry batteries. This paper outlines the history and current situations of dry battery recycling in Taiwan, as well as EPA s efforts to promote dry battery recycling. Key wordsdry batteryrecycling 89 11,

24 /12/19 / % %

25 /12/19 / % 4. () 2 171

26 /12/19 / ( ) 2 () 172

27 /12/19 / /

28 /12/19 /

29 /12/19 / , , , / 15 /

30 /12/19 /

31 /12/19 / ( ) SiO 2 ( 60%~90%) FM SiO 2 A Study of Foundry Waste Reuse H. D, Zheng 1 Y.M,Chang 2 T. H., Lu 3 1 General Manager, Eco Technology & Consultants Co., Ltd.. 2 Environment Engineer, Eco Technology & Consultants Co., Ltd.. 3 Vice General Manager, Re-source Technology Abstract 177

32 /12/19 / The foundry produce 1.5million waste per year. These diverse foundry wastes deriving from different equipments are difficult to reuse them. The chemical composition of waste foundry sand is mainly SiO 2 (60%-90%). The physical character of waste foundry sand is similar to natural sand. The chemical composition of foundry slag is mainly SiO 2 and residual irons. The physical character of foundry slag is similar to natural sand, too. The character of foundry dust is similar to waste foundry sand except of its grain. At present, the way of reusing the waste foundry sand and foundry slag is to be the civil engineering material. Although the character of foundry dust is similar to waste foundry sand, the dust has a confined way to reusing for its fine gain. In this study, by the way of inspecting the foundry and reusing factory is to understand the situation and questions of producing, and reusing. Analyzing the advantage and drawback of the reusing technology purpose to propose the best way to reuse the Foundry Waste. Key words: foundry waste, resource reusing 150 ~200 [1] 91 6 / () 150 2% 178

33 /12/19 / 呋 () TCLP ( 1) ( 3) ( ) 179

34 /12/19 / SiO 2 (%) 1 Al 2 O 3 (%) CaO (%) Cr 2 O 3 (%) Fe 2 O 3 (%) MgO (%) Clay (%) Cl - (mg/kg) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (TCLP) As Cd Cr Cr 6+ Cu Hg Pb Zn (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) ( ) ND ND 0.1 ND ( ) ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 0.02 ND ( ) ND ND 0.03 ND ( ) ND ND ND ND 0.27 ND ( ) ND ND ND 0.02 ND No.40 (%) 3 No.60 (%) No.70 (%) No.100 (%) No.140 (%) No.170 (%) No.200 (%) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) SiO 2 (%) 180

35 /12/19 / ,528 / 3,277 / 4 (/) 56,528 3,277 0 () 1 + CLSM 1 181

36 /12/19 / 1. (1) (2) 2. (1) (2) 1/10 3. (1) (2) 4. (CLSM) (1) CLSM (2) CLSM [2] CLSM CLSM 5. (1) (2) ASTM

37 /12/19 / (1) (2) () 1. ( 2) 2. MgO CaO ( 1) + () CLSM 2 ( 1) 1 (CLSM) () 183

38 /12/19 / 1. (1) (2) ( ) 2. ( ) ( ) 3. ()

39 /12/19 / 2. CLSM( ) CLSM 1. (2001) 2. " CLSM " 443 (2003_ 185

40 /12/19 / (A ) (B ) NH 3 NH 3 NH 3 A ppm ppmb ppm ppma NH ~0.268 ppm ppmb 0.082~0.746 ppm 0.312ppmA NH ppmb ppma NH ppm AB NH 3 A NH 3 B ph A NH 3 B NH 3 (ammonia) [1] 186

41 /12/19 / SO 2-4 NO - 3 NH + 4 NH 4 NO 3 NH 4 HSO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 H(SO4) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 SOxNOx H 2 SO 4 HN0 3 NH + 4 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 NH 4 NO 3 [2] NH 3 NH 3 [3] 1. [4-10]2. [11]3. [12] 83.1% 13%[4] 90% [5] 90% [13] [14] [15] ( ) A 10 B ph

42 /12/19 / 1 2 (A ) (B ) 1. A 2. B 188

43 /12/19 / 2.2 (NIEA A B) alkaline-sodium hypochlorite indophenol sodium nitroprusside 630nm 14.6µg/Nm 3 ( 2L/min 60 min=120 L/hr) a. SKC Inc., Eighty, PA USA 60Kpa 1~2 L/min( 2 L/min) b. SKC Inc., 863Valley View Road,Eighty,PA15330 USA 1 2L/min c. 10mL d. SKC Inc., Glass Filter Type A/C mm, 1.0µm mormal e. SKC 189

44 /12/19 / f. g. PU PVC 2. Davis Instrument Weather Monitorsystem, product # ml 1 L/min ml 25mL µg NH3/25mL 10mL 10mL R ml 5 ml 22 ml 2.5mL 25 ml nm 3. : C=W/Vn C µg /Nm 3 NH 3 W 25mL NH 3 µg Vn=(F/1000) t (Ps/1013) [273/(273+Ts)] F (L/min) t (min) Ps (Kpa) Ts ( ) 190

45 /12/19 / 3.1 A A ppm ppm ppm 0.149~0.057ppm 4 A 0.600ppm 0.300ppm. 1ppm 1. A NH 3 () (%) (Kpa) (g/nm 3 ) (ppm) ( ) ( ) B B 2 ph ppm 0.492ppm 0.082ppm 0.739ppm 0.746ppm 191

46 /12/19 / 0.300ppm ppm 2 B NH 3 () (%) (Kpa) (g/nm 3 ) (ppm) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ph ( ) ( ) NH 3 (ppm) A 192

47 /12/19 / NH 3 (ppm) B 3.3 AB 6 AB ppm A A 0.209ppm B 0.087ppm B ph B 0.312ppm A ppm A A B NH 3 (ppm) AB 193

48 /12/19 / 3 3. / NH 3 Ranage Oct 2000~Jan 2001 (3 ) Oct2000~Jan 2001 (3 ) May 2001~Mar 2002 (4 ) May 2001~Mar (Park) 2002 (4 ) 2000~ May~Jul (8 ) Jul (2 ) Apr~Sep 2003 A B (2 ) 21.2~4.1 (ppb) 13.6~4.2 (ppb) 3.8~45.6 (g/m 3 ) 2.2~7.3 (g/m 3 ) 2.4~7.5 (mg/m 3 ) 66~ ~ ~1050 (g/m 3 ) 0.296~ ~0.615 (ppm) 0.057~ ~0.746 (ppm) NH 3 Averaged 11.4(ppb) Automated IC [16] 9.2(ppb) Automated IC [16] 17.2 (g/m 3 ) 3.7 (g/m3) (g/s-m 2 ) (g/m 3 ) (ppm) Automated Denuder/Filter-pack sample Automated Denuder/Filter-pack sample GC Chenilum- inesence [12] [12] [17] NIEA A426.71B [18] NIEA A426.71B [19] NIEA A426.71B

49 /12/19 / 2. ph AB 1ppm 1. ( ) 2. N. F. Magelson, L. Lewis, J. M. Joseph, W. Cui, J.Machir, N. W. Williams, D. J. Eatough, L. B. Rees, T. Wilkerson and D. T. Jensen, The Contribution of Sulfate and Nitrate to Atmospheric Fine Particle During Winter Inversion Fogs in Cache Valley, Uath, Journal Air and Waste Management Association, Vol.47, pp (1997). 3. V.P. Anjea, J.P. Chauhan, J.T.Walker, Characterisation of atmospheric ammonia emissions from swine waste storage and treatment lagoons, Journal of Geophysical Research 105, (2000). 4. (1999) 5. T.H. Misselbrook, Van Der Weerden, B.F Pain, S.C. Jarvis, B.J. Chambers, K.A. Smith., V.R Phillips, T.G.M Demmers, Ammonia emission factors for UK agriculture, Atmospheric Environment,Vol.34, pp.871~880(2000). 6. B. F. Pain, T. J. Van Der Weerden, B. J. Chanbers, V. R. Phillips, A inventory for ammonia emissions from UK agriculture, Atmospheric Environment,Vol. 32, pp (1998). 7. J. Webba, T. Misselbrookb, B.F. Painb,1, J. Crabbc, S. Ellisd, An estimate of the contribution of outdoor concrete yards used by livestock to the UK inventories of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane, Atmospheric Environment,Vol.35, pp (2001). 8. V. R. Phillips, S. J. Bishop, J. S. price, S. You, Summer emission of ammonia from a slurry-based, dairy cow house, Bioressorce Technology,Vol.65, (1998). 9. S. C. Jarvis, S. Ledgard, Ammonia emissions from intensive dairying: a comparison of contrasting systems in the United Kingdom and New Zealand, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment,Vol.92, pp.83 92(2002). 195

50 /12/19 / 10. B. P. Hyde, O. T. Carton, P. O Toole, T.H. Misselbrook, A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture, Atmospheric Environment,Vol.37,pp.55-62(2003). 11. E. Buijsman, H. F. M. Mass, W. A. H. Asman, Anthropogenic NH 3 emission in Environment, Atmospheric Environment, Vol.21, pp (1987). 12. C. Perrino, M. Catrambone, A. Di Menno Di Bucchianico, I. Allegrini Gaseous ammonia in the urban area of Rome, Italy and its relationship with traffic emission, Atmospheric Environment, Vol.36, pp (2002). 13. M. A. Sutton, C. J. Place, M. Eager, D. Fowler, R. I. Smith, Assessment of the magnitude of ammonia emissions in the United Kingdom, Atmospheric Environment, Vol.29, pp (1995). 14. Jun Zhu, A review of microbiology in swine odor control, Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment, Vol.78, pp93-10(2002). 15. M. D. Goebes, R. Strader, C. David,An ammonia emission inventory for fertilizer application in the United States Atmospheric Environment, Vol.37, pp (2003). 16. M.L. Fischer, L. David, M.L. Melissa, J.B. Nancy,Automated measurement of ammonia and nitric acid in indoor and outdoor air, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.37, pp (2003). 17. T. T. Lim, J. H. Albert, Ji-Qin Ni, A. L. Sutton, P. Shao,Odor and gas release from anerobic treatment lagoon for swine manure, Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol.32, pp (2003). 18. S. M. McGinn, H. H. Janzen, T. Coate,Atmospheric ammonia, Volatile fatty acid, and other odorants near beef feedlots, Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol.32, pp (2003). 19. (2003) 196

51 /12/19 / BTX BTX 5.4 BTX % mg/l O 2 / mgvsshr HBOD 30 mg/l 050 g/l NaCl BOD Monod h -1 Kargi 3 K T g/l, R 2 = g/l, R 2 = g/l, R 2 = Effect of Salinity on the Respiration Characteristics of BTX Oxidizer Ching-Hsing Lin, Wen-Der Liu, Chun-Chih Hsiao, Wen Lee, Hui-Ying Liu, Ssu-Fan Lin, and Chun-hsuan Yu Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Tung Nan Institute of Technology 197

52 /12/19 / Abstract This study intends to examine the respiration characteristics of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) under various salinities by microorganisms that cultivated from chemostat reactor fed with mixed substrate of benzene, toluene, and xylene as sole carbon source. Oxygen uptake rate measurements were performed on BTX oxidizer cultivated in fresh water medium and subjected to the shock load of saline water having a wide range of salinity(050 g/l NaCl). The results were compared with those of fresh water medium as a control and correlated to the NaCl concentrations. Results showed that the salinity had significant impact on respiration characteristics of BTX oxidizer. Measured data from batch experimentals were modeled with Monod kinetics, giving that the maximum substrate utilization rates for benzene, toluene, and xylene were 0.21, 0.21, and 0.15 h -1, respectively. Then experimental data from saline mediums was fitted with Kargi inhibition equation, yielding values of g/l, R 2 = for benzene, g/l, R 2 = for toluene, and g/l, R 2 = for xylene. This result suggested that K T of BTX could be the same order. Key words: oxygen uptake rate, respiration characteristics, salt inhibition [1] [2] BOD BOD [3] [4] [5] HBOD(Headspace Biochemical Oxygen Demand) HBOD HBOD BOD HBOD [6] Kinner et al. RBC 60%COD [7] 198

53 /12/19 / Kargi Dincer 1 COD 5% COD 85% 60% [8] Dincer Karg K TN = mg/l K TDN = mg/l [9] Dan, N. P g/l COD K T 46 g/l 70 g/l [10] BTX 05% NaCl BTX Kargi K T chemostat L Master Flex model Cole Parmer BTX BTX 4 chemostat 1 2. K 2 HPO 4 3H 2 O4.25 g/lnah 2 PO 4 H 2 O1.00 g/l NH 4 Cl2.00 g/lmgso 4 7H 2 O 0.20 g/lfeso 4 7H 2 O g/l MnSO 4 H 2 O0.003 g/lznso 4 7H 2 O g/lcoso 4 7H 2 O g/l NaCl 3. Spectronic Instruments 4001/4 600nm OD

54 /12/19 / 4. 1 BOD YSI 52B YSI BTX GC/FID GC/FID BTX 30 m (J&W DB-5 column) µL GC/FID BTX storage feed pump Complete mixed Active carbon off-gas Air Effluent BTX & Nutrient Soln. Computert DO meter SOUR detect pump 1 chemostat 2.2 WTW (Rspirometrische BSB 5 OxiTop) 050 g/l (1) 200

55 /12/19 / 1 Chemostat BTX 30 mg/l mg/l NaCl mg O 2 /mg VSS-hr 1. Monod kinetics1949 ds dt kxs = 1 K S S + ds dt = h -1 k= h -1 S= mg/lx= mg/lk s = mg/l [11] 1 do dt X O = 2 2 K SO k S S + S + K O 2 Specific Oxygen Uptake RateSOUR k K, K SOUR k, K, K S 2 k, K, K O O, SO IO I SO IO IO 2SOURobs SOUR pre Minimize 2. n [ i 2 SOUR obs SOUR pre ] 3 k m 201

56 /12/19 / k KT = km 4 K + T T T mg/l K T mg/l K T 4 1 k 1 1 = + T 5 k k K m m T T k 5 K T 3.1Chemostat Chemostat BTX mg/l BTX mg/l BTX mg/l Chemostat mg/l BTX % Y 0.27 mg VSS /mg BTX ph DO mg/l mg/l O 2 / mgvsshr (a) Y [12] Monod k=0.21 h -1 K s =12.05 mg/lrss= % 2(b)2(f) k K s 1 1 K m 0.21 h -1 5%0.05 h -1 3(a)3(f) Y [12] k K s 3 202

57 /12/19 / K m 0.21 h -1 2 Chemostat ph 6.1±0.3 DOmg/L 4.9±1.2 Temp. 24.0±2.7 MLSSmg/L 56.0±28.8 MLVSSmg/L 19.2±8.6 Hydraulic DTdays 5.4±0.2 Oxygen uptake rate mg/l O 2 / Inflow mgvsshr B Tmg/L X B Effluent Tmg/L X B Off-gas Tmg/L X 0.121± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±0.37 5%0.06 h-1 4(a)4(f) k K s 4 K m 0.15 h-1 5%0.05 h Kargi K T g/l, R 2 = g/l, R 2 = g/l, R 2 =

58 /12/19 / HBOD K T 1.Grady, C.P.L., Jr., Daigger, G.T., and Lim, H.C. (1999) Biological wastewater treatment, 2nd Ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. 2.Rozich, A.F., and Gaudy, A.F., Jr. (1992) Design and Operation of Activated Sludge Processes Using Respirometry, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, Mich. 3.Schroeder, F., Water and wastewater treatment, McGraw-Hill, New York(1977). 4.Grady, C.P.L., Jr., and Lim, H. C., Biological wastewater treatment, theory and applications, Marcel Dekker, Inc., NEW York(1980). 5.Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Wastewater Engineering-Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, McGraw-Hill, New York(1991). 6.Logan, B. E., and Wagenseller, G. A., (1995) The HBOD test : anew method for determining biochemical oxygen demand, Water Environment Research,65(7), Kinner, N. E. and Bishop, P. I., Treatment of saline domestic wastewater using RBC's J. Environ. Engineer., 108, (1962). 8.Kargi, F. and Dincer, A., Enhancement of biological treatment performance of saline wastewater by halophilic bacteria, Bioprocess Engrg., 15, 51-58(1996). 9.Kargi, F. and Dincer, A. R., Salt inhibition effects in biological treatment of saline wastewater in RBC, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 125, (1999). 10.Dan, N. P., Visvanathan, C. and Basu Biswadeep, (2002) Comparative evaluation of yeast and bacterial treatment of high salinity wastewater based on biokinetic coefficients, Bioresource Technology, 87, Lee, C. Y. and Cheng, S. Z., Toxic effects on respiratory activities of phenol-oxidizing cultures grown from various conditions, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, B33(6), (1998). 12., BTpX (2002) 204

59 /12/19 / 2 ( NaCl 050 g/l) ( ) ( ) (2) ((3)) 205

60 /12/19 / 3 ( NaCl 050 g/l) ( ) ( ) (2) ((3)) Y [12] 206

61 /12/19 / 4 ( NaCl 050 g/l) ( ) ( ) (2) ((3)) Y [12] 207

62 /12/19 / PET A Study on the Development and Promotion Strategy for Taiwan s Environmental Textiles- Using Recycled Textile as Case Study 208

63 /12/19 / Ching-Wei Lo and Allen H.Hu 1 Graduate Student, Graduate Institute of Environmental Management, Nan Hua University 2 Associate Professor, Institute of Environmental Planning and Management, National Taipei University of Technology Abstract Textile industry used to be Taiwan s most important industry in the 60~70 s. It created lots of foreign exchange for Taiwan and laid the groundwork for the island s economic booming. Currently, Taiwan s industrial focus was shifted to high-tech, and the importance of textile industry was somehow overlooked. However, since it is still an important livelihood industry, it s sustainable or not still closely related to Taiwan s sustainability. In this study, newly developed environmental policies and regulations related to the textile industry were first reviewed. Several environmental issues, which have impact on the textile industry were identified and studied. Among them, environmental textile or eco-textile was selected to studied thoroughly in this study. It is because this kind of the products was made of recycled or recovered material, such as PET bottles, and this not just meets the global green trend, but also boosts the trading of textile products. It is found that the market and development of eco-textile was rather week. Hence, special efforts will be devoted to understand the status and its development of eco-textile. A case study will be studied thoroughly to identify the barriers and blockages for the development of eco-textile, whether technologically or legally. Finally, a comprehensive suggestion will be proposed for both government and industry to assist textile industry in creating another pinnacle for Taiwan s foreign trade. Key words: Textile industry, eco-textile, environmental textile, green textile, recycled textile 209

64 /12/19 / 100 [1] 200 Öko-Tex Standard 100 and M.S.T [3] NAFTA [2] ( ) 曁 [1] 1 : ,616 3, ,977 +7, ,560 3, ,395 +5, ,185 2, , , ,196 2, ,304 +8, ,635 2, , , ,150 2,470 +9, ,

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67 /12/19 / 50 ( ) 3000 [7] 2[7] ( 2001) Lyocell 3[7] 3 50 tons/year Lyocell 360 tons/year PCL ( 2001) 1. OEM [8] 3[8] 213

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69 /12/19 / [10] () Pollution Prevention Act [11]1992 E3 [12] PTT Lycell PLA CDP( ) 50%-60% 4[7] 4 Wellman Pure Tech Evergreen Synthetic Carigill Dow Interface F.I.T DuPont PTT DuPont ( 2001) 215

70 /12/19 / Lyocell 5[13] 5 Lyocell Lenzing Lenzing Lyocell Akzo Nobel New-Cell TITK ALCERU 2002 ( [11]) ( 20 ) & 30% (1) [11] (2) 30 (3) Lyocell Lyocell

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76 /12/19 / (1997) Ulrich. Sewekwo, Bayer AG and Leverkusen, How to Meet the Requirements for Eco-Textiles, Textile Chemist and Colorist, 28(1), pp.21-27(1996). 4. Ioan I. Negulescu, Hyojung Kwon, Billie J. Collier, John R. Collier, and Ajit Pendse, Recycling Cotton From Cotton/Polyester Fabrics, Textile Chemist and Colorist, 30(6), pp.31-35(1998) (2002)

77 /12/19 / 12. Keith Bradlley, Recycling Textiles: The Fashionable Way to Make Energy Savings, Canadian Textile Journal, 111(8), pp.26-27(1995) (2003)

78 /12/19 / SRB385 EUB338UNIV342ACD840THIO820 DNA PCR 16Sr-DNA DIG The Evaluation for a Microarray Prototype on the Diagnosis of Biocorrosion YJ Chang 1, WL Wu 2, CY Tsu 2, WT Lai 2, CY Tsai 2, and CH Chen 2 1 Assistant Professor, Department of Safty Health and Environmental Engineering, Tung Nan Institute of Technology 2 Department of Safty Health and Environmental Engineering, Tung Nan Institute of Technology Abstract Several specify probes which corresponding to the bacteria relating to corrosion were selected for building a prototype of a corrosion-diagnosis 224

79 /12/19 / biochip. The probe SRB385 (for sulfate reducing bacteria), EUB338 (for domain Bacteria), ACD840 (for Acidiphilium sp.), and THIO820 (for Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) were selected to fix on the positive charged nylon membrane in this study. Then the DNA extracted from either aerobic or anaerobic bioreactor were amplified by PCR and labeled with DIG. After hybridization and washing process, the chemical colorization was performed by adding color substrate and the reaction for each probe was evaluated. The advantages of this system are low cost of equipment, economic stuff, and commercial potential. However, the low sensitivity and the operational experience will affect the accuracy of the results of this system. Key words: Biocorrosion, Sulfate reducing bacteria, Microarray, Southern hybridization Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion, MIC MIC sulfate reducing bacteria, SRB [1]-[3] (hydrogenase) APS (adenosin-5 -phosphosulphate) 16S rdna fluorescence in-situ hybridization, FISH (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) denature gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE [4] 225

80 /12/19 / 16S rdna 2.1 SRB 21 1ng/uL 10 SSC 10 min 1L Hybond-N+, Amersham UV-crosslink 2 min( 1) GC% bp Tm EUB338 gct gcc TCC CgT Agg AgT Ravenschlag et al., 2000; Bond et al., 2000 NON338 ACT CCT ACG gga ggc AgC Ravenschlag et al., 2000; Bond et al., 2000 UNIV342 CTg CTg CSY CCC gta g Frischer et al., 2000 SRB385 gct gcc TCC CgT Agg AgT Peccia et al., 2000 THIO820 ACC AAA CAT CTA gta TTC ATC g Frischer et al., 2000 ACD840 CgA CAC TgA AgT gct AAg C Bond et al., 2000 ARCH91 5 gtg CTC CCC CgC CAA TTC CT Bond et al., 2000 S C G 2.2 DNA DIG DNA [5] DNA Roche DIG High Prime DNA Labeling and Detection Starter Kit ICat. No DNA PCR PCRprimers 27F5 gtg CTg CAg AgA gtt TgA TCC Tgg CTC Ag R5 CAC gga TCC ACg ggc ggt gtg TRC 3 50L PCR template DNA 2L10X buffer 5L10mM dntp 2 L10mM primer 2.5LTaq 1u PCR ABI GeneAmp

81 /12/19 / PCR EtBr1Agrose 100 bp ladder bp UV box Gel-M kitbioman kit agrose DNA DNA 3g 16 L 10 min Roche DIG-High Prime 4 ul10 sec 37 C 2L 0.2 M EDTA (ph 8.0) 65 C 10 min 2.3 DIG Easy Hyb (37-42 C) 30 min DIG- DNA (25 ng/ml) 5 min DIG Easy Hyb DNA 2.4 2x SSC, 0.1% SDS 2 5 min 0.5x SSC, 0.1% SDS C 2 15 min Washing buffer (1-5) min Blocking solution 30 minantibody solution 30 min Washing buffer 2 15 min Detection buffer 2-5 min color substrate solution 5 min buffer Roche Manual 2.5 positive control DNA DNA positive control 20 ul5 ug/ml Bam HI pbr328 DNA DNA [6] DNA Tm Tm = (% G + C) - (600/l) l base pair 1 Tm 227

82 /12/19 / NON338 SRB385 Tm 21 THIO820 ACD840THIO820 Thiobacillus thiooxidans Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ACD840 Acidiphilium NON338 negative control UNIV342positive control [6] UNIV342 SRB385 Tm 1 SRB385 UNIV342 EUB338 EUB338 SRB385 EUB338 DNA THIO820 ACD840 THIO820 1 ph = 6 DNA NON338 THIO820 ACD840 Thiobacillus thiooxidans Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ph < 3.0 ph 7.0 Acidiphilium ph ph 6.1 Thiobacillus THIO820 EUB338NON338 SRB385 THIO820 2 THIO820 ACD820 NON338 DNA 2 3 THIO820 Thiobacillus clone Thiobacillus 228

83 /12/19 / 1 ph = 6 DNA

84 /12/19 / NSC E DNA 1. Booth, G. H., Microbiological Corrosion, Mills and Boon Ltd, London. (1971). 2. Miller, J. D. A., Microbial aspects of metallurgy, Medical and Technical Publishing 3., Aylesbury. (1971). 4. Hamilton, W. A., Sulphate-reducing bacteria and anaerobic corrosion, Annu. Rev. Microbiol., 39: (1985). 5., , ,

85 /12/19 / The Observing Article for Implementation of Design for Environment in Automotive Manufacturer Yu-cheng ChangAmos Chang Taiwan Green Productivity Foundation Abstract To promote resource recycle and reuse is an important policy about enhancing gross national life quality and national image. The policy should account for the feasibility about resource recycle and reuse from product design, manufacture, sale, and use to disposal. The automotive industry is a key industry that possesses high industry relational grade and competent to promote industrial value-added. The article deliberates 231

86 /12/19 / about European Union and Japan measures to promote resource recycle, and to probe into automotive industry promoting design for environment. It will be establish the automotive industrial benchmarking about Resource Recycle and Reuse Act. Key words: Design for Environment (DfE), resource recycle and reuse act, recycle

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93 /12/19 / U.S.EPA 1976 Resource Conservation and Recycle Act, RCRA 1990 Pollution Prevention Act Ford GM Daimler Chrysler 1992 Vehicle Recycling Partnership, VRP Aluminum Association, AA American Plastics Council, APC Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, ISRI Automotive Recyclers Association, ARA Automotive Parts Rebuilders Association, APRA Department of Energy, DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies, OAAT Argonne Argonne National Laboratory A Roadmap for Recycling End-of-Life Vehicles of the Future 3 239

94 /12/19 / U.S. MOE2001 A Roadmap for Recycling End-of-Life Vehicles of the Future 3 20 () % % 22% 240

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96 /12/19 / ELV Directive Article 4.1(a) Article 8.1 / Article 8.3 Article

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98 /12/19 / ELV Center for Sustainable Systems of University of Michigan, Management of End-of Life Vehicles in US, (2001). 2. Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA), Laws and Regulations Concerning Automobiles, 2001 The Motor Industry of Japan, pp.25-28(2002). 3. METI, Towards Advancement of a Recycling-Oriented Economic System, (2002). 4. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies, A Roadmap for Recycling End-of-Life Vehicles of the Future, (2003) (2003) (2003) () (2001) (2003) (2003) (2000) 244

99 /12/19 / Preparation and Characteristics of Titania/Gold/Polypyrrole Nanocomposites Yu-Chuan Liu,1, Chun-En Tsai 1, Cheng-Cai Wang 2, Lain-Chuen Juang 2, Kuo-Lung Lan 1, Shih-Ho Liao 1,Chih-Lung Lin 1 and Ching-Chih Liu 1 1 Department of Chemical Engineering 2 Department of Environmental Engineering, 1 Van Nung Institute of Technology, Van Nung Road, Chung-Li City, Taiwan, R. O. C. Corresponding Author; Abstract We report here the pathway to prepare titania/gold/polypyrrole(ppy) trilayers nanocomposites to modify the photocatalytical characteristics of rutile titania nanoparticles. First, Au-containing nanocomplexes with the mean diameter of 2 nm in 0.1 N HCl aqueous solutions were prepared by roughening Au substrates with electrochemical oxidation-reduction cycles (ORC) in 0.1 N HCl. Then these Au-containing nanocomplexes were added into 1 mm rutile titania nanoparticles solutions at ph 1 to form titania/gold core/shell structures. Finally, PPy-coated titania/gold nanocomposites with a trilayers structure can be prepared by the formation of self-assembled monolayers and further orderly autopolymerization of pyrrole monomers on the Au-containing nanocomplexes in the core/shell structures. The characteristics of the modified nanocomposites were investigated by the analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra. Key words: Modification; Au-containing nanocomplexes; Titania Introduction Nanoscale titania is one of the most investigated oxide materials recently owning to its important applications in environmental cleanup, photocatalysts, and solar cells. To increase its photocatalytic efficiency, many methods have been developed to prepare Au-coated TiO 2 nanocomposites. TiO 2 forms three different crystalline structures: rutile, anatase, and brookite. Rutile is the 245

100 /12/19 / thermodynamically stable phase, while anatase and brookite are metastable polymorphs that irreversibly transform to rutile upon heating. The electronic structure and properties of single crystalline rutile have been studied quite extensively, but only little is known on nanocrystalline rutile, while most of the literature on nanophase TiO 2 concerns ultra fine colloids of the anatase modification. The interest in colloidal anatase stems from its high photocatalytic activity, which is considered by many to be superior to that of rutile. However, the rutile phase is much more stable than anatase and easier to produce. Bulk metallic gold typically exhibits a very low chemical and catalytic activity. Among the transition metals, gold is by far the least reactive and is often referred to as the coinage metal. The low activity of metallic Au is a consequence of combining a deep-lying valence d band and very diffuse valence s, p orbitals. Recently, gold has become the subject of a lot of attention due to its unusual catalytic properties when dispersed on some oxide supports, like TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3. The Au/TiO 2 system is particularly interesting. Gold particles supported on titania are active catalysts for the low-tempwrature oxidation of CO, the selective oxidation of propene, and photocatalytic oxidations used for environmental cleanup. In the previous studies of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of polypurrole (PPy), we reported the evidence of chemical effect on SERS of PPy electrodeposited on gold roughened by electrochemical oxidation-reduction cycles (ORC) and the relationship between crystalline orientations of gold and SERS of PPy deposited on it. Encouragingly, during roughening Au substrates by the ORC treatment, stable Au-containing nanocomplexes are found existing in a 0.1 N KCl aqueous solution without any other additive. In this study, we report here the pathway to prepare titania/gold/polypyrrole(ppy) trilayers nanocomposites to modify the photocatalytical characteristics of rutile titania nanoparticles. First, Au-containing nanocomplexes with the mean diameter of 2 nm in 0.1 N HCl aqueous solutions were prepared by roughening Au substrates with electrochemical oxidation-reduction cycles in 0.1 N HCl. Then these Au-containing nanocomplexes were added into 1 mm rutile titania nanoparticles solutions at ph 1 to form titania/gold core/shell structures. Finally, PPy-coated titania/gold nanocomposites with a trilayers structure can be prepared by the formation of self-assembled monolayers and further orderly autopolymerization of pyrrole monomers on the Au-containing nanocomplexes in the core/shell structures. 246

101 /12/19 / Experimental Chemical Reagents. Chemical Reagents Pyrrole (Py) was triply distilled until a colorless liquid was obtained and was then stored under nitrogen before use. HCl was used as received without further purification. The reagents (p.a. grade) were purchased from Acros Organics. Rutile TiO 2 nanoparticles were purchased from Desunnano Co., Ltd, Taiwan. All of the solutions were prepared using deionized 18 MΩ cm water. Preparation of Au-Containing Colloids All the electrochemical experiments were performed in a three-compartment cell at room temperature, 24 o C, and were controlled by a potentiostat (model PGSTAT30, Eco Chemie). A sheet of polycrystalline gold foil with bare surface area of cm 2, a 2 2 cm 2 platinum sheet, and silver-silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) were employed as the working, counter, and reference electrodes, respectively. Before the oxidation-reduction cycles (ORC) treatment, the gold electrode was mechanically polished (model Minimet 1000, Buehler) successively with 1 and 0.05 µm of alumina slurry to a mirror finish. During the ORC treatment, the Au substrate was cycled in a deoxygenated aqueous solution containing 0.1 N HCl from to V vs Ag/AgCl at 500 mv/s with 100 scans. The durations at - the cathodic and anodic vertexes are 10 and 5 s, respectively. Then the AuCl 4 nanocomplexes were prepared in this aqueous solution and some drops containig this Au complexes were immediately added in an aqueous solution containing 1 mm rutile TiO 2 nanoparticles at ph 1. Subsequently, 0.2 m mol/l pyrrole monomers were added into this AuCl - 4 -coated TiO 2 aqueous solution and the mixture was stirred for 1 hr at room temperature to prepare titania/gold/ppy trilayers nanocomposites. Characteristics of prepared titania/gold/ppy trilayers nanocomposites For the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, a Physical Electronics PHI 1600 spectrometer with monochromatized Mg K α radiation, 15 kv and 250 W, and an energy resolution of % E/E was used. To compensate for surface charging effects, all XPS spectra are referred to the C 1s neutral carbon peak at ev. Surface chemical compositions were determined from peak-area ratios corrected with the approximate instrument sensitivity factors. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopic measurements were carried out on a Perkin Elmer Lambda 25 spectrophotometer in 1 cm quartz curvettes. 247

102 /12/19 / Results and Discussions In ORC treatment, the chloride electrolyte was selected, since as for silver, this facilitates the metal dissolution-deposition process that is known to produce SERS-active roughened surfaces. 45 Figure 1 shows the typical triangular voltammetry curve obtained at 500 mv s -1 on gold in 0.1 N HCl. The most distinguishable feature is the marked appearance of the cathodic and anodic peaks at ca. 0.2 and 0.3 V vs Ag/AgCl, respectively, when the Au substrate was roughened between and 1.22 V vs Ag/AgCl in ORC treatment. Actually the anodic peak begins to show at the 10th scan. It grows with the scanning. Similar reports, but without this anodic peak, were also shown in the literature. Figure 2 demonstrates the absorbance maximum of rutile TiO 2 nanoparticles, used in this study, appearing approximately at 325 nm. As shown in spectrum a of - Figure 3, the absorbance maximum of AuCl 4 nanocomplexes appears approximately at 308 nm, which is markedly different from that of zero-valent Au located at ca. 520 nm. After addition of pyrrole monomers, the absorbance at 308 nm disappears and a new band of π-π transition of PPy in the region of nm with absorbance maximum at ca. 463 nm arises instead, as shown in spectrum b of Figure 3. It indicates that the TiO 2 /Au/PPy nanocomposites with a core-shell structure have been successfully prepared. Figure 4 shows the XPS survey spectrum of the prepared titania/gold/ppy trilayers nanocomposites. The Ti, Au and N signals are markedly demonstrated. Primary result shows that the modified trilayer nanocomposites can improve the decomposition reaction of methyl blue. Detailed researches are under way Current/mA E/V vs. Ag/AgCl Figure 1. I-E curve for roughening Au substrate with scan rate of 500 mv s -1 and 25 scans in 0.1 N HCl. 248

103 /12/19 / Absorbance / a.u Wavelength / nm Figure 2. UV-vis spectrum of TiO 2 nanoparticles-containing 0.1 N HCl aqueous solution. Absorbance / a.u. b a Wavelength / cm Figure 3. UV-vis spectra of (a) Au-containing nanocomplexes -coated TiO 2 ; (b) TiO 2 /Au/PPy nanocomposites. 249

104 /12/19 / Ti XPS intensity / a.u. Au N Binding enegry / ev Figure 4. XPS survey spectrum of the titania/gold/ppy nanocomposites. References 1.Andersson, M.; Osterlund, L.; Ljungstrom, S.; Palmqvist, A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2002, 106, 10674(2000). (2) Tada, H.;Suzuki, F.; Ito, S.; Akita, T.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahara, T.; Kobayashi, H. J. Phys. Chem. B 2002, 106, (3) Gratzel, M. Nature 2001, 414, 338. (4) Zanella, R.; Giorgio, S.; Henry, C. R.; Louis, C. J. Phys. Chem. B 2002, 106, (5) Guo, Y. G.; Wan, L. J.; Bai, C. L. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, (6) Zamborini, F. P.; Gross, S. M.; Murray, R. W. Langmuir 2001, 17, 481. (7) Schoenfisch, M. H.; Pemberton, J. E. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, (8) Huang, K.; Wan, M. Chem. Mater. 2002, 14, (9) Antonietti, M.; Forster, S.; Hartmann, J.; Oestreich, S. Macromolecules 1996, 29, (10) Liu, Y. C.; Jang, L. Y. J. Phys. Chem. B 2002, 106, (11) Liu, Y. C. Langmuir 2002, 18,

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