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1 Cover Page The handle holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation Author: Qian Li Title: The production and perception of tonal variation : evidence from Tianjin Mandarin Issue Date:

2 APPENDICE Appendix I The size and location of the visual stimuli in the Visual World Paradigm were calculated as follows, as illustrated in Figure I. As shown in Figure Ia, the diameter (D) of the 5 visual circle (parafoveal visual region, as illustrated with circles in Figure I) on the screen was calculated according to the formula: D = 2 d tan!. Therefore, given the distance from! the eyes to the monitor (d=69cm), the diameter of each circle should be 6.03cm. Figure I Illustration of the size and location of the disyllabic words. As shown in Figure I, the fixation cross was located at the very center of the screen (as illustrated with a black cross in Figure I). The screen was then divided into nine regions according to the central circle with the fixation cross as the center. The circles for the four words were located at the four corners respectively. Each disyllabic word was typed in Song, and resized into a 2.5cm * 5cm rectangle (as illustrated with the solid black rectangle in Figure I), which was maximally fit into the circle; the farther side edge of the words were 14.56cm to the left or right of the screen central vertical lines, and 13.31cm to the upper or lower of the screen central horizontal lines. 135

3 Appendix II The full lists of disyllabic and trisyllabic words used in Chapter 3 are given below. II-1. Disyllabic word list. Tonal Sequences T1T1 T1T2 T1T3 T1T4 T2T1 T2T2 T2T3 T2T4 T3T1 T3T2 T3T3 T3T4 Morpho-syntactic Structures Compound Modifier+Head Verb+Object 爹妈 die 1 ma 1 parents 规模 gui 1 mo 2 scale 枢纽 shu 1 niu 3 hub 归纳 gui 1 na 4 to conclude 拿捏 na 2 nie 1 to ponder 皮毛 pi 2 mao 2 fur 涂抹 tu 2 mo 3 to smear 稠密 chou 2 mi 4 dense 扭捏 niu 3 nie 1 coy 楷模 kai 3 mo 2 model 子女 zi 3 nü 3 child 美妙 mei 3 miao 4 wonderful 家猫 jia 1 mao 1 domestic cat 歌迷 ge 1 mi 2 fans 糙米 cao 1 mi 3 brown rice 闺蜜 gui1 mi 4 girlfriends 白猫 bai 2 mao 1 white cat 活埋 huo 2 mai 2 to bury alive 鸵鸟 tuo 2 niao 3 ostrich 胡闹 hu 2 nao 4 to make trouble 奶妈 nai 3 ma 1 nanny 铁牛 tie 3 niu 2 tractor 舞女 wu 3 nü 3 dancing girl 果木 guo 3 mu 4 fruit tree 弯腰 wan 1 yao 1 to bend down 猜谜 cai 1 mi 2 to guess a riddle 推理 tui 1 li 3 to reason 揭密 jie 1 mi 4 to reveal a secret 行医 xing 2 yi 1 to practice medicine 回眸 hui 2 mou 2 to look back 淘米 tao 2 mi 3 to wash rice 夺目 duo 2 mu 4 dazzling 爽约 shuang 3 yue 1 to fail to keep an appointment 起锚 qi 3 mao 2 to raise anchor 洗脑 xi 3 nao 3 to brainwash 把脉 ba 3 mai 4 to take one s pulse 136

4 T4T1 触摸 chu 4 mo 1 to touch 后妈 hou 4 ma 1 step mother 喂猫 wei 4 mao 1 to feed the cat T4T2 计谋 ji 4 mou 2 stratagem 亚麻 ya 4 ma 2 linen 蓄谋 xu 4 mou 2 to premeditate T4T3 购买 gou 4 mai 3 to buy 密码 mi 4 ma 3 password 喂奶 wei 4 nai 3 to breastfeed T4T4 咒骂 zhou 4 ma 4 to curse 内幕 nei 4 mu 4 inside story 盗墓 dao 4 mu 4 to rob a grave II-2. Trisyllabic list 1: σσσ. Tonal Sequences T1T1T1 T1T1T2 T1T1T3 T1T1T4 T1T2T1 T1T2T2 T1T2T3 T1T2T4 T1T3T1 Word 1 Word 2 乌拉圭 wu 1 la 1 gui 1 Uruguay 西班牙 xi 1 ban 1 ya 2 Spain 希拉里 xi 1 la 1 li 3 Hilary 伊拉克 yi 1 la 1 ke 4 Iraq 昆德拉 kun 1 de 2 la 1 Kundera 科摩罗 ke 1 mo 2 luo 2 Comoros 巴拿马 ba 1 na 2 ma 3 Panama 加拿大 jia 1 na 2 da 4 Canada 安卡拉 an 1 ka 3 la 1 Ankara 撒哈拉 sa 1 ha 1 la 1 Sahara 阿拉伯 a 1 la 1 bo 2 Arab 巴哈马 ba 1 ha 1 ma 3 Bahamas 科威特 ke 1 wei 1 te 4 Kuwait 科伦坡 ke 1 lun 2 po 1 Colombo 巴格达 ba 1 ge 2 da 2 Baghdad 多明我 duo 1 ming 2 wo 3 Domingo 匈牙利 xiong 1 ya 2 li 4 Hungary 詹姆斯 zhan 1 mu 3 si 1 James 137

5 T1T3T2 T1T3T3 T1T3T4 T1T4T1 T1T4T2 T1T4T3 T1T4T4 T2T1T1 T2T1T2 T2T1T3 T2T1T4 T2T2T1 T2T2T2 T2T2T3 T2T2T4 苏里南 su 1 li 3 nan 2 Surinam 托马里 tuo 1 ma 3 li 3 Tomari 多普勒 duo 1 pu 3 le 4 Doppler 菲律宾 fei 1 lv 4 bin 1 Philippine 喀麦隆 ka 1 mai 4 long 2 Cameroon 哈勒姆 ha 1 le 4 mu 3 Haarlem 伽利略 jia 1 li 4 lüe 4 Galilei 尼加拉 ni 2 jia 1 la 1 Niagara 柏拉图 bo 2 la 1 tu 2 Plato 博拉美 bo 2 la 1 mei 3 Polamer 黎巴嫩 li 2 ba 1 nen 4 Lebanon 吉隆坡 ji 2 long 2 po 1 Kuala Lumpur 婆罗门 po 2 luo 2 men 2 Brahman 德雷姆 de 2 lei 2 mu 3 Dremu 尤迪特 you 2 di 2 te 4 Udeet 多里达 duo 1 li 3 da 2 Derrida 扎卡里 zha 1 ka 3 li 3 Zachry 冈比亚 gang 1 bi 3 ya 4 Gambia 阿克拉 a 1 ke 4 la 1 Accra 乌克兰 wu 1 ke 4 lan 2 Ukraine 安道尔 an 1 dao 4 er 3 Andorra 巴洛克 ba 1 luo 4 ke 4 Baroque 达拉斯 da 2 la 1 si 1 Dallas 德黑兰 de 2 hei 1 lan 2 Tehran 卢森堡 lu 2 sen 1 bao 3 Luxembourg 明斯克 ming 2 si 1 ke 4 Minsk 俄罗斯 e 2 luo 2 si 1 Russia 迪德罗 di 2 de 2 luo 2 Diderot 尼泊尔 ni 2 bo 2 er 3 Nepal 格兰特 ge 2 lan 2 te 4 Grant 138

6 T2T3T1 T2T3T2 T2T3T3 T2T3T4 T2T4T1 T2T4T2 T2T4T3 T2T4T4 T3T1T1 T3T1T2 T3T1T3 T3T1T4 T3T2T1 T3T2T2 T3T2T3 牙买加 ya 2 mai 3 jia 1 Jamaica 梅里达 mei 2 li 3 da 2 Merida 劳卡鲁 lao 2 ka 3 lu 3 Lokarus 伯努利 bo 2 nu 3 li 4 Bernoulli 摩纳哥 mo 2 na 4 ge 1 Monaco 罗纳德 luo 2 na 4 de 2 Ronald 伯克里 bo 2 ke 4 li 3 Berkeley 维克特 wei 2 ke 4 te 4 Victor 塔波拉 ta 3 bo 1 la 1 Tabora 比基尼 bi 3 ji 1 ni 2 Bikini 果哥里 guo 3 ge 1 li 3 Gogol 法拉利 fa 3 la 1 li 4 Ferrari 海明威 hai 3 ming 2 wei 1 Hemingway 卡琳达 ka 3 lin 2 da 2 Kalinda 马德里 ma 3 de 2 li 3 Madrid 莱比锡 lai 2 bi 3 xi 1 Leipzig 图瓦卢 tu 2 wa 3 lu 2 Tuvalu 伯里瓦 bo 2 li 3 wa 3 Bolivar 维也纳 wei 2 ye 3 na 4 Vienna 伯利兹 bo 2 li 4 zi 1 Belize 卢旺达 lu 2 wang 4 da 2 Rwanda 尼日尔 ni 2 ri 4 er 3 Niger 华盛顿 hua 2 sheng 4 dun 4 Washington 美因兹 mei 3 yin 1 zi 1 Mainz 马拉维 ma 3 la 1 wei 2 Malawi 里斯本 li 3 si 1 ben 3 Lisbon 索菲亚 suo 3 fei 1 ya 4 Sofia 马尼拉 ma 3 ni 2 la 1 Manila 所罗门 suo 3 luo 2 men 2 Solomon 纽伦堡 niu 3 lun 2 bao 3 Nuremberg 139

7 T3T2T4 T3T3T1 T3T3T2 T3T3T3 T3T3T4 T3T4T1 T3T4T2 T3T4T3 T3T4T4 T4T1T1 T4T1T2 T4T1T3 T4T1T4 T4T2T1 T4T2T2 马其顿 ma 3 qi 2 dun 4 Macedonia 卡米拉 ka 3 mi 3 la 1 Camilla 马里兰 ma 3 li 3 lan 2 Maryland 索马里 suo 3 ma 3 li 3 Somalia 柬埔寨 jian 3 pu 3 zhai 4 Cambodia 卡耐基 ka 3 nai 4 ji 1 Carnegie 普契尼 pu 3 qi 4 ni 2 Puccini 马六甲 ma 3 liu 4 jia 3 Malacca 玛丽娜 ma 3 li 4 na 4 Marina 孟加拉 meng 4 jia 1 la 1 Bengal 布拉格 bu 4 la 1 ge 2 Prague 爱丁堡 ai 4 ding 1 bao 3 Edinburgh 麦当娜 mai 1 dang 1 na 4 Madonna 洛仑兹 luo 4 lun 2 zi 1 Lorentz 不来梅 bu 4 lai 2 mei 2 Bremen 塔吉克 ta 3 ji 2 ke 4 Tajik 马耳他 ma 3 er 3 ta 1 Malta 土耳其 tu 3 er 3 qi 2 Turkey 卡塔尔 ka 3 ta 3 er 3 Qatar 雅典娜 ya 3 dian 3 na 4 Athena 瓦杜兹 wa 3 du 4 zi 1 Vaduz 比利时 bi 3 li 4 shi 2 Belgium 马绍尔 ma 3 shao 4 er 3 Marshall 以色列 yi 3 se 4 lie 4 Isreal 墨西哥 mo 4 xi 1 ge 1 Mexico 圣基茨 sheng 4 ji 1 ci 2 Saint Kitts 奥巴马 ao 4 ba 1 ma 3 Obama 奥斯陆 ao 4 si 1 lu 4 Oslo 慕尼黑 mu 4 ni 2 hei 1 Munich 布隆迪 bu 4 long 2 di 2 Burundi 140

8 T4T2T3 T4T2T4 T4T3T1 T4T3T2 T4T3T3 T4T3T4 T4T4T1 T4T4T2 T4T4T3 T4T4T4 洛伦佐 luo 4 lun 2 zuo 3 Lorenzo 奥兰治 ao 4 lan 2 zhi 4 Orange 帕美拉 pa 4 mei 3 la 1 Pamela 布吕尼 bu 4 lü 3 ni 2 Bruni 亚美里 ya 4 mei 3 li 3 Amelie 布鲁诺 bu 4 lu 3 nuo 4 Bruno 洛佩兹 luo 4 pei 4 zi 1 Lopez 拜占庭 bai 4 zhan 4 ting 2 Byzantium 瑞贝卡 rui 4 bei 4 ka 3 Rebecca 奥地利 ao 4 di 4 li 4 Austria 立陶宛 li 4 tao 2 wan 3 Lithuania 克林顿 ke 4 lin 2 dun 4 Clinton 萨瓦多 sa 4 wa 3 duo 1 Salvador 爱尔兰 ai 4 er 3 lan 2 Ireland 曼海姆 man 4 hai 3 mu 3 Mannheim 利比亚 li 4 bi 3 ya 4 Libya 鹿特丹 lu 4 te 4 dan 1 Rotterdam 密克罗 mi 4 ke 4 luo 2 Mikro 洛丽塔 luo 4 li 4 ta 3 Lolita 意大利 yi 4 da 4 li 4 Italy II-3. Trisyllabic list 2: σσ+σ. Tonal Sequences T1T1T1 T1T1T2 T1T1T3 Word 1 Word 2 拖拉机 tuo 1 la 1 ji 1 tractor 公安局 gong 1 an 1 ju 2 police station 拉丁舞 la 1 ding 1 wu 3 Latin dance 出租车 chu 1 zu 1 che 1 taxi 工商局 gong 1 shang 1 ju 2 Trade and Industry Bureau 飞机场 fei 1 ji 1 chang 3 airport 141

9 T1T1T4 T1T2T1 T1T2T2 T1T2T3 T1T2T4 T1T3T1 T1T3T2 T1T3T3 T1T3T4 T1T4T1 T1T4T2 T1T4T3 T1T4T4 T2T1T1 T2T1T2 基督教 ji 1 du 1 jiao 4 Christianity 金鱼缸 jin 1 yu 2 gang 1 goldfish tank 乌龙球 wu 1 long 2 qiu 2 own goal 葱油饼 cong 1 you 2 bing 3 onion pancake 资格证 zi 1 ge 2 zheng 4 certificate 资本家 zi 1 ben 3 jia 1 capitalist 宗主国 zong 1 zhu 3 guo 2 suzerain 斑点狗 ban 1 dian 3 gou 3 Dalmatian dog 天主教 tian 1 zhu 3 jiao 4 Catholicism 音乐家 yin 1 yue 4 jia 1 musician 机器人 ji 1 qi 4 ren 2 robot 登记表 deng 1 ji 4 biao 3 registration form 关帝庙 guan 1 di 4 miao 4 Temple of General Kuan 楼梯间 lou 2 ti 1 jian 1 stairwell 鱼肝油 yu 2 gan 1 you 2 fish oil 夫妻店 fu 1 qi 1 dian 4 family-run shop 天狼星 tian 1 lang 2 xing 1 Sirius 安全局 an 1 quan 2 ju 2 Security Bureau 冰球手 bing 1 qiu 2 shou 3 hockey player 侏罗纪 zhu 1 luo 2 ji 4 Jurassic 风景区 feng 1 jing 3 qu 1 scenic district 资产权 zi 1 chan 3 quan 2 property rights 深水港 shen 1 shui 3 gang 3 deepwater harbor 斑马线 ban 1 ma 3 xian 4 zebra line 生物钟 sheng 1 wu 4 zhong 1 biochronometer 工作狂 gong 1 zuo 4 kuang 2 workaholic 工艺品 gong 1 yi 4 pin 3 handicraft 生物链 sheng 1 wu 4 lian 4 food chain 红灯区 hong 2 deng 1 qu 1 red light district 传播学 chuan 2 bo 1 xue 2 communication 142

10 T2T1T3 T2T1T4 T2T2T1 T2T2T2 T2T2T3 T2T2T4 T2T3T1 T2T3T2 T2T3T3 T2T3T4 T2T4T1 T2T4T2 T2T4T3 T2T4T4 T3T1T1 服装厂 fu 2 zhuang 1 chang 3 garment factory 牙周病 ya 2 zhou 1 bing 4 periodontal disease 南极洲 nan 2 ji 2 zhou 1 Antarctica 蝴蝶结 hu 2 die 2 jie 2 bow knot 篮球场 lan 2 qiu 2 chang 3 basketball court 能源部 neng 2 yuan 2 bu 4 Ministry of Energy 平板车 ping 2 ban 3 che 1 trolley 龙井茶 long 2 jing 3 cha 2 Longjing tea 长短腿 chang 2 duan 3 tui 3 leg length discrepancy 营养液 ying 2 yang 3 ye 4 nutrient 杂技班 za 2 ji 4 ban 1 acrobatic team 国庆节 guo 2 qing 4 jie 2 National Day 游乐场 you 2 le 4 chang 3 playground 疾病册 ji 2 bing 4 ce 4 list of diseases 闪光灯 shan 3 guang 1 deng 1 flash light 流星雨 liu 2 xing 1 yu 3 meteor shower 神经病 shen 2 jing 1 bing 4 psycho 流行歌 liu 2 xing 2 ge 1 pop song 直肠癌 zhi 2 chang 2 ai 2 rectum cancer 流行语 liu 2 xing 2 yu 3 popular word 神农架 shen 2 nong 2 jia 4 (a place in Hubei Province) 平顶山 ping 2 ding 3 shan 1 (a city in Henan Province) 牛仔裙 niu 2 zai 3 qun 2 jeans skirt 华表奖 hua 2 biao 3 jiang 3 Marble Pillar Award 寒武纪 han 2 wu 3 ji 4 Cambrian 杂货摊 za 2 huo 4 tan 1 grocery stall 杂技团 za 2 ji 4 tuan 2 acrobatic society 玩具厂 wan 2 ju 4 chang 3 toy factory 糖尿病 tang 2 niao 4 bing 4 diabetes 镁光灯 mei 3 guang 1 deng 1 limelight 143

11 T3T1T2 T3T1T3 T3T1T4 T3T2T1 T3T2T2 T3T2T3 T3T2T4 T3T3T1 T3T3T2 T3T3T3 T3T3T4 T3T4T1 T3T4T2 T3T4T3 T3T4T4 火车头 huo 3 che 1 tou 2 locomotive 奖金卡 jiang 3 jin 1 ka 3 bonus card 火车票 huo 3 che 1 piao 4 train ticket 主人翁 zhu 3 ren 2 weng 1 hero 狗头铡 gou 3 tou 2 zha 2 kobold guillotine 打折卡 da 3 zhe 2 ka 3 coupon 友情价 you 3 qing 2 jia 4 friendly price 古董车 gu 3 dong 3 che 1 antique car 火把节 huo 3 ba 3 jie 2 torch festival 演讲稿 yan 3 jiang 3 gao 3 speech text 雅宝路 ya 3 bao 3 lu 4 Yabao Road 可乐机 ke 3 le 4 ji 1 coke machine 保健球 bao 3 jian 4 qiu 2 bowling 统计表 tong 3 ji 4 biao 3 statistic form 感叹句 gan 3 tan 4 ju 4 exclamatory sentence 母亲河 mu 3 qin 1 he 2 mother river 广东省 guang 3 dong 1 sheng 3 Guangdong Province 火车站 huo 3 che 1 zhan 4 train station 里程碑 li 3 cheng 2 bei 1 milestone 北极熊 bei 3 ji 2 xiong 2 polar bear 死亡谷 si 3 wang 2 gu 3 death valley 恐龙蛋 kong 3 long 2 dan 4 dinosaur egg 宝马车 bao 3 ma 3 che 1 BMW car 理想国 li 3 xiang 3 guo 2 Utopia 总统府 zong 3 tong 3 fu 3 president office 老虎凳 lao 3 hu 3 deng 4 tiger bench 百叶窗 bai 3 ye 4 chuang 1 venetian blind 乳腺癌 ru 3 xian 4 ai 2 breast cancer 笔记本 bi 3 ji 4 ben 3 notebook 打印店 da 3 yin 4 dian 4 print shop 144

12 T4T1T1 T4T1T2 T4T1T3 T4T1T4 T4T2T1 T4T2T2 T4T2T3 T4T2T4 T4T3T1 T4T3T2 T4T3T3 T4T3T4 T4T4T1 T4T4T2 T4T4T3 外交官 wai 4 jiao 1 guan 1 diplomat 太空船 tai 4 kong 1 chuan 2 spaceship 贵宾卡 gui 4 bin 1 ka 3 VIP card 外交部 wai 4 jiao 1 bu 4 Ministry of Foreign Affairs 地球村 di 4 qiu 2 cun 1 earth village 太平洋 tai 4 ping 2 yang 2 Pacific Ocean 互联网 hu 4 lian 2 wang 3 Internet 外来妹 wai 4 lai 2 mei 4 girls from other places 电子钟 dian 4 zi 3 zhong 1 electronic clock 盗版盘 dao 4 ban 3 pan 2 pirated CD 电子表 dian 4 zi 3 biao 3 electronic watch 电影票 dian 4 ying 3 piao 4 movie ticket 纪念碑 ji 4 nian 4 bei 1 monument 纪念堂 ji 4 nian 4 tang 2 memorial hall 信用卡 xin 4 yong 4 ka 3 credit card 地方官 di 4 fang 1 guan 1 local official 电机房 dian 4 ji 1 fang 2 engine room 便签纸 bian 4 qian 1 zhi 3 sticker 太空站 tai 4 kong 1 zhan 4 space station 共鸣腔 gong 4 ming 2 qiang 1 resonance cavity 橡皮泥 xing 4 pi 2 ni 2 plasticine 棒球手 bang 4 qiu 2 shou 3 baseball player 空格键 kong 4 ge 2 jian 4 space bar 样板间 yang 4 ban 3 jian 1 sample room 电影节 dian 4 ying 3 jie 2 film festival 电影展 dian 4 ying 3 zhan 3 movie exhibition 电影院 dian 4 ying 3 yuan 4 cinema 计算机 ji 4 suan 4 ji 1 computer 电信局 dian 4 xin 4 ju 2 tele-comm office 记忆体 ji 4 yi 4 ti 3 RAM 145

13 T4T4T4 数据库 shu 4 ju 4 ku 4 database 计算器 ji 4 suan 4 qi 4 calculator II-4. Trisyllabic list 3: σ+σσ. Tonal Sequences T1T1T1 T1T1T2 T1T1T3 T1T1T4 T1T2T1 T1T2T2 T1T2T3 T1T2T4 T1T3T1 T1T3T2 T1T3T3 T1T3T4 Word 1 Word 2 高工资 gao 1 gong 1 zi 1 high salary 新中国 xin 1 zhong 1 guo 2 new China 宽肩膀 kuan 1 jian 1 bang 3 wide shoulder 轻音乐 qing 1 yin 1 yue 4 light music 干蹄筋 gan 1 ti 2 jin 1 dry tendon 东柏林 dong 1 bo 2 lin 2 East Berlin 新油桶 xin 1 you 2 tong 3 new oil tank 新邮件 xin 1 you 2 jian 4 new mail 湿纸巾 shi 1 zhi 3 jin 1 wet tissue 猪口条 zhu 1 kou 3 tiao 2 pig tongue 新总统 xin 1 zong 3 tong 3 new president 亲姐妹 qin 1 jie 3 mei 4 blood sister 新飞机 xin 1 fei 1 ji 1 new aircraft 多功能 duo 1 gong 1 neng 2 multi-function 光污染 guang 1 wu 1 ran 3 light pollution 新花样 xin 1 hua 1 yang 4 new trick 双职工 shuang 1 zhi 2 gong 1 working parents 西柏林 xi 1 bo 2 lin 2 west Berlin 鲜牛奶 xian 1 niu 2 nai 3 fresh milk 新词汇 xin 1 ci 2 hui 4 new vocabulary 清辅音 qing 1 fu 3 yin 1 voiceless consonant 金耳环 jin 1 er 3 huan 2 gold earring 新产品 xin 1 chan 3 pin 3 new product 新产业 xin 1 chan 3 ye 4 new industry 146

14 T1T4T1 T1T4T2 T1T4T3 T1T4T4 T2T1T1 T2T1T2 T2T1T3 T2T1T4 T2T2T1 T2T2T2 T2T2T3 T2T2T4 T2T3T1 T2T3T2 T2T3T3 湿面巾 shi 1 mian 4 jin 1 wet facial tissue 猪大肠 zhu 1 da 4 chang 2 pig intestine 新电影 xin 1 dian 4 ying 3 new movie 新概念 xin 1 gai 4 nian 4 new concept 团中央 tuan 2 zhong 1 yang 1 league center 红蜻蜓 hong 2 qing 1 ting 2 red dragonfly 红糙米 hong 2 cao 1 mi 3 red rice 咸鸭蛋 xian 2 ya 1 dan 4 salty duck egg 蓝瓷砖 lan 2 ci 2 zhuan 1 blue ceramic tile 前王朝 qian 2 wang 2 chao 2 previous dynasty 毒苹果 du 2 ping 2 guo 3 toxic apple 咸白菜 xian 2 bai 2 cai 4 salty cabbage 纯酒精 chun 2 jiu 3 jing 1 pure alcohol 红嘴唇 hong 2 zui 3 chun 2 red lip 前总统 qian 2 zong 3 tong 3 former president 新校区 xin 1 xiao 4 qu 1 new campus 新纪元 xin 1 ji 4 yuan 2 new era 花大姐 hua 1 da 4 jie 3 ladybug 中世纪 zhong 1 shi 4 ji 4 middle age 毛蜘蛛 mao 2 zhi 1 zhu 1 hairy spider 瓷花瓶 ci 2 hua 1 ping 2 ceramic vase 零增长 ling 2 zeng 1 zhang 3 zero increase 皮车座 pi 2 che 1 zuo 4 feather seat 男同胞 nan 2 tong 2 bao 1 fellow men 明长城 ming 2 chang 2 cheng 2 Ming Great Wall 男旗手 nan 2 qi 2 shou 3 male flag-bearer 雌杨树 ci 2 yang 2 shu 4 female poplar 浊辅音 zhuo 2 fu 3 yin 1 voiced consonant 蓝宝石 lan 2 bao 3 shi 2 sapphire 男保姆 nan 2 bao 3 mu 3 male nanny 147

15 T2T3T4 T2T4T1 T2T4T2 T2T4T3 T2T4T4 T3T1T1 T3T1T2 T3T1T3 T3T1T4 T3T2T1 T3T2T2 T3T2T3 T3T2T4 T3T3T1 T3T3T2 蓝孔雀 lan 2 kong 3 que 4 blue peacock 男卫兵 nan 2 wei 4 bing 1 male guard 红气球 hong 2 qi 4 qiu 2 red balloon 源代码 yuan 2 dai 4 ma 3 source code 全自动 quan 2 zi 4 dong 4 automatic 假观音 jia 3 guan 1 yin 1 fake Buddha 小家庭 xiao 3 jia 1 ting 2 small family 伪君子 wei 3 jun 1 zi 3 hypocrite 冷空气 leng 3 kong 1 qi 4 cold air 假投资 jia 3 tou 2 zi 1 fake investment 小提琴 xiao 3 ti 2 qin 2 violin 镁离子 mei 3 li 2 zi 3 magnesium ion 软白菜 ruan 3 bai 2 cai 4 soft cabbage 女主播 nü 3 zhu 3 bo 1 anchorwoman 老党员 lao 3 dang 3 yuan 2 old party member 雌孔雀 ci 2 kong 3 que 4 female peacock 白衬衫 bai 2 chen 4 shan 1 white shirt 南半球 nan 2 ban 4 qiu 2 south hemisphere 红墨水 hong 2 mo 4 shui 3 red ink 全世界 quan 2 shi 4 jie 4 entire world 党中央 dang 3 zhong 1 yang 1 party center 紫蜻蜓 zi 3 qing 1 ting 2 purple dragonfly 水污染 shui 3 wu 1 ran 3 water pollution 总司令 zong 3 si 1 ling 4 general commander 假结婚 jia 3 jie 2 hun 1 fake marriage 老同学 lao 3 tong 2 xue 2 old classmate 钾离子 jia 3 li 2 zi 3 potassium ion 软实力 ruan 3 shi 2 li 4 soft power 死火山 si 3 huo 3 shan 1 dead volcano 小老头 xiao 3 lao 3 tou 2 little old man 148

16 T3T3T3 T3T3T4 T3T4T1 T3T4T2 T3T4T3 T3T4T4 T4T1T1 T4T1T2 T4T1T3 T4T1T4 T4T2T1 T4T2T2 T4T2T3 T4T2T4 T4T3T1 女总统 nü 3 zong 3 tong 3 female president 紫孔雀 zi 3 kong 3 que 4 purple peacock 小汽车 xiao 3 qi 4 che 1 small car 伪政权 wei 3 zheng 4 quan 2 puppet regime 老电影 lao 3 dian 4 ying 3 old movie 假面具 jia 3 mian 4 ju 4 guise 硬钢盔 ying 4 gang 1 kui 1 hard helmet 旧中国 jiu 4 zhong 1 guo 2 old China 负增长 fu 4 zeng 1 zhang 3 negative increase 旧家具 jiu 4 jia 1 ju 4 old furniture 半元音 ban 4 yuan 2 yin 1 semi-vowel 臭流氓 chou 4 liu 2 mang 2 hooligan 热牛奶 re 4 niu 2 nai 3 hot milk 辣白菜 la 4 bai 2 cai 4 spicy cabbage 厚脚跟 hou 4 jiao 3 gen 1 thick heel 女总理 nü 3 zong 3 li 3 female prime minister 小眼镜 xiao 3 yang 3 jing 4 small glasses 水立方 shui 3 li 4 fang 1 Water Cube 女队员 nü 3 dui 4 yuan 2 female member 伪政府 wei 3 zheng 4 fu 3 puppet government 小报告 xiao3 bao4 gao4 secret report 市中心 shi 4 zhong 1 xin 1 city center 大家庭 da 4 jia 1 ting 2 big family 重金属 zhong 4 jin 1 shu 3 heavy metal 半封建 ban 4 feng 1 jian 4 semi-feudal 大熊猫 da 4 xiong 2 mao 1 giant panda 大结局 da 4 jie 2 ju 2 finale 负离子 fu 4 li 2 zi 3 anion 大屏幕 da 4 ping 2 mu 4 large screen 副主编 fu 4 zhu 3 bian 1 vice editor-in-chief 149

17 T4T3T2 T4T3T3 T4T3T4 T4T4T1 T4T4T2 T4T4T3 T4T4T4 厚脸皮 lou 4 lian 3 pi 2 cheeky 臭老九 chou 4 lao 3 jiu 3 intellectual 旧广告 jiu 4 guang 3 gao 4 old commercial 亚健康 ya 4 jian 4 kang 1 sub-health 热气球 re 4 qi 4 qiu 2 hot air balloon 废报纸 fei 4 bao 4 zhi 3 waste newspaper 慢动作 man 4 dong 4 zuo 4 slow motion 代总裁 dai 4 zong 3 cai 2 acting CEO 大拇指 da 4 mu 3 zhi 3 thumb 电暖器 dian 4 nuan 3 qi 4 heater 电饭锅 dian 4 fan 4 guo 1 rice cooker 热炕头 re 4 kang 4 tou 2 heated bed 木地板 mu 4 di 4 ban 3 wooden floor 半自动 ban 4 zi 4 dong 4 semi-automatic 150

18 Appendix III The full list of stimuli in Chapter 4 is given below. III-1. Near-Merger Sandhi targets and respective segmental competitors. Stimuli Log Freq. N. of Strokes Bigram Mutual Info. 1 指法 (zhi 3 fa 3 ) fingering 滞后 (zhi 4 hou 4 ) lag 反响 (fan 3 xiang 3 ) repercussion 范例 (fan 4 li 4 ) example 赌本 (du 3 ben 3 ) money for gambling 杜撰 (du 4 zhuan 4 ) to fabricate 赌友 (du 3 you 3 ) gambler friend 度假 (du 4 jia 4 ) to take a vacation 俯首 (fu 3 shou 3 ) to be obedient 附录 (fu 4 lu 4 ) appendix 抚养 (fu 3 yang 3 ) to bring up 负债 (fu 4 zhai 4 ) debt 雨水 (yu 3 shui 3 ) rainwater 预购 (yu 4 gou 4 ) purchase in advance 主管 (zhu 3 guan 3 ) person in charge 注释 (zhu 4 shi 4 ) annotation

19 9 虎口 (hu 3 kou 3 ) jaws of death 互助 (hu 4 zhu 4 ) to help each other 火把 (huo 3 ba 3 ) torch 货架 (huo 4 jia 4 ) goods shelf 咫尺 (zhi 3 chi 3 ) very short distance 制定 (zhi 4 ding 4 ) to formulate 眼睑 (yan 3 jian 3 ) eyelids 厌恶 (yan 4 wu 4 ) to dislike 使馆 (shi 3 guan 3 ) embassy 事件 (shi 4 jian 4 ) event 土改 (tu 3 gai 3 ) land reform 兔肉 (tu 4 rou 4 ) rabbit meat 统管 (tong 3 guan 3 ) overall administration 痛恨 (tong 4 hen 4 ) to hate 仰角 (yang 3 jiao 3 ) angle of elevation 样式 (yang 4 shi 4 ) pattern 指导 (zhi 3 dao 3 ) guide 制造 (zhi 4 zao 4 ) to manufacture 起码 (qi 3 ma 3 ) at least 气愤 (qi 4 fen 4 ) furious

20 III-2. No-Merger Sandhi targets and respective segmental competitors. Stimuli Log Freq. N. of Strokes Bigram Mutual Info. 1 僵尸 (jiang 1 shi 1 ) mummy 降落 (jiang 4 luo 4 ) to land 尖刀 (jian 1 dao 1 ) sharp knife 渐变 (jian 4 bian 4 ) to change graudually 低压 (di 1 ya 1 ) low pressure 地势 (di 4 shi 4 ) topography 肩章 (jian 1 zhang 1 ) shoulder badge 健将 (jian 4 jiang 4 ) athelete 交心 (jiao 1 xin 1 ) to lay one s heart bare 教具 (jiao 4 ju 4 ) teaching aids 收心 (shou 1 xin 1 ) to get serious 授课 (shou 4 ke 4 ) to teach 优生 (you 1 sheng 1 ) healthy birthing 诱变 (you 4 bian 4 ) mutagenesis 收编 (shou 1 bian 1 ) to incorporate armies 受贿 (shou 4 hui 4 ) to take bribes 搭车 (da 1 che 1 ) to get a lift 大麦 (da 4 mai 4 ) barley

21 10 世间 (shi 4 jian 1 ) world 史册 (shi 3 ce 4 ) historical records 汽车 (qi 4 che 1 ) car 起义 (qi 3 yi 4 ) revolt 器官 (qi 4 guan 1 ) organ 乞丐 (qi 3 gai 4 ) beggar 浴缸 (yu 4 gang 1 ) bathtub 语录 (yu 3 lu 4 ) quotation 市区 (shi 4 qu 1 ) urban area 使坏 (shi 3 huai 4 ) to play dirty 误工 (wu 4 gong 1 ) absent from work 舞剧 (wu 3 ju 4 ) dance drama 异心 (yi 4 xin 1 ) disloyalty 椅背 (yi 3 bei 4 ) back of chair 滞销 (zhi 4 xiao 1 ) unsaleable 纸币 (zhi 3 bi 4 ) paper money 面纱 (mian 4 sha 1 ) veil 免税 (mian 3 shui 4 ) duty-free III-3. No Sandhi targets and respective segmental competitors. Stimuli Log Freq. N. of Strokes Bigram Mutual Info. 154

22 1 继续 (ji 4 xu 4 ) to continue 挤压 (ji3 ya1) to press 意愿 (yi 4 yuan 4 ) wish 乙肝 (yi3 gan1) hepatitis B 事例 (shi 4 li 4 ) example 史诗 (shi3 shi1) epic 教义 (jiao 4 yi 4 ) religious regulations 脚尖 (jiao3 jian1) tiptoe 去世 (qu 4 shi 4 ) to pass away 取消 (qu3 xiao1) to cancle 上市 (shang 4 shi 4 ) to go on market 赏光 (shang3 guang1) to honour with presence 检查 (jian 3 cha 2 ) to check 见解 (jian4 jie3) opinion 简直 (jian 3 zhi 2 ) simply 舰长 (jian4 zhang3) captain 主题 (zhu 3 ti 2 ) topic 住址 (zhu4 zhi3) home address 吻合 (wen 3 he 2 ) to match 问好 (wen4 hao3) to greet 妥协 (tuo 3 xie 2 ) to compromise 拓展 (tuo4 zhan3) to develop

23 12 指明 (zhi 3 ming 2 ) to point out 质朴 (zhi4 pu3) simple 史册 (shi 3 ce 4 ) historical records 试纸 (shi4 zhi3) regeant paper 舞会 (wu 3 hui 4 ) Prom 物产 (wu4 chan3) resource 享誉 (xiang 3 yu 4 ) to enjoy fame 巷口 (xiang4 kou3) end of alley 手锯 (shou 3 ju 4 ) hand saw 瘦小 (shou4 xiao3) thin and small 暑假 (shu 3 jia 4 ) summer vacation 术语 (shu4 yu3) termiology 简历 (jian 3 li 4 ) resumé 健美 (jian4 mei3) fitness

24 Appendix IV The full list of stimuli in Chapter 5 is given below. IV-1. Near-Merger Sandhi targets (T3T3) and respective competitors. Stimuli Log Freq. N. of Stroke Bigram Mutual Info 指法 (zhi 3 fa 3 ) fingering 纸箱 (zhi 3 xiang 1 ) carton 职称 (zhi 2 cheng 1 ) professional title 滞后 (zhi 4 hou 4 ) lag 反响 (fan 3 xiang 3 ) repercussion 反击 (fan 3 ji 1 ) counter-attack 凡间 (fan 2 jian 1 ) the mortal world 范例 (fan 4 li 4 ) example 赌本 (du 3 ben 3 ) money for gambling 堵车 (du 3 che 1 ) traffic jam 读音 (du 2 yin 1 ) pronunciation 杜撰 (du 4 zhuan 4 ) to fabricate 赌友 (du 3 you 3 ) gambler friend 堵车 (du 3 che 1 ) traffic jam 独资 (du 2 zi 1 ) exclusive investment 度假 (du 4 jia 4 ) to take a vacation

25 俯首 (fu 3 shou 3 ) to be obedient 辅修 (fu 3 xiu 1 ) to minor in 伏贴 (fu 2 tie 1 ) to fit perfectly 附录 (fu 4 lu 4 ) appendix 抚养 (fu 3 yang 3 ) to bring up 俯身 (fu 3 shen 1 ) to bend down 服装 (fu 2 zhuang 1 ) clothes 负债 (fu 4 zhai 4 ) to debt 雨水 (yu 3 shui 3 ) rainwater 雨滴 (yu 3 di 1 ) raindrop 鱼虾 (yu 2 xia 1 ) fish and shrimps 预购 (yu 4 gou 4 ) to purchase in advance 主管 (zhu 3 guan 3 ) person in charge 主攻 (zhu 3 gong 1 ) main attack 竹签 (zhu 2 qian 1 ) bamboo stick 注释 (zhu 4 shi 4 ) annotation 虎口 (hu 3 kou 3 ) jaws of death 虎威 (hu 3 wei 1 ) power and prestige 湖边 (hu 2 bian 1 ) lakeside 互助 (hu 4 zhu 4 ) to help each other

26 火把 (huo 3 ba 3 ) torch 火锅 (huo 3 guo 1 ) hot pot 活捉 (huo 2 zhuo 1 ) capture alive 货架 (huo 4 jia 4 ) goods shelf 咫尺 (zhi 3 chi 3 ) very short 指尖 (zhi 3 jian 1 ) finger tip 职称 (zhi 2 cheng 1 ) professional title 制定 (zhi 4 ding 4 ) to formulate 眼睑 (yan 3 jian 3 ) eyelids 眼珠 (yan 3 zhu 1 ) eyeball 严师 (yan 2 shi 1 ) strict teacher 厌恶 (yan 4 wu 4 ) to dislike 使馆 (shi 3 guan 3 ) embassy 始发 (shi 3 fa 1 ) departure 时钟 (shi 2 zhong 1 ) clock 事件 (shi 4 jian 4 ) event 土改 (tu 3 gai 3 ) land reform 土丘 (tu 3 qiu 1 ) mound 图钉 (tu 2 ding 1 ) drawing pin 兔肉 (tu 4 rou 4 ) rabbit meat

27 统管 (tong 3 guan 3 ) overall administration 统称 (tong 3 cheng 1 ) general term 同桌 (tong 2 zhuo 1 ) deskmate 痛恨 (tong 4 hen 4 ) to hate 仰角 (yang 3 jiao 3 ) angle of elevation 养生 (yang 3 sheng 1 ) to maintain good health 羊羔 (yang 2 gao 1 ) lamb 样式 (yang 4 shi 4 ) pattern 指导 (zhi 3 dao 3 ) to guide 纸巾 (zhi 3 jin 1 ) tissue 直说 (zhi 2 shuo 1 ) to speak frankly 制造 (zhi 4 zao 4 ) to manufacture 起码 (qi 3 ma 3 ) at least 起初 (qi 3 chu 1 ) in the beginning 骑车 (qi 2 che 1 ) to cycle 气愤 (qi 4 fen 4 ) furious IV-2. No-Merger Sandhi targets (T1T1 and T4T1) and respective competitors. Stimuli Log Freq. N. of Stroke Bigram Mutual Info. 160

28 僵尸 (jiang 1 shi 1 ) mummy 江南 (jiang 1 nan 2 ) the southern Yangtze region 奖牌 (jiang 3 pai 2 ) medal 降落 (jiang 4 luo 4 ) to land 尖刀 (jian 1 dao 1 ) sharp knife 奸贼 (jian 1 zei 2 ) traitors 简明 (jian 3 ming 2 ) brief 渐变 (jian 4 bian 4 ) to change graudually 低压 (di 1 ya 1 ) low pressure 低垂 (di 1 chui 2 ) droop 抵达 (di 3 da 2 ) to arrive 地势 (di 4 shi 4 ) topography 肩章 (jian 1 zhang 1 ) shoulder badge 兼容 (jian 1 rong 2 ) compatible 简洁 (jian 3 jie 2 ) concise 健将 (jian 4 jiang 4 ) athelete 交心 (jiao 1 xin 1 ) to lay one s heart bare 胶皮 (jiao 1 pi 2 ) rubber 角膜 (jiao 3 mo 2 ) cornea 教具 (jiao 4 ju 4 ) teaching aids ,

29 收心 (shou 1 xin 1 ) to get serious 收容 (shou 1 rong 2 ) to take in 守恒 (shou 3 heng 2 ) conservation 授课 (shou 4 ke 4 ) to teach 优生 (you 1 sheng 1 ) healthy birthing 悠扬 (you 1 yang 2 ) melodious 友人 (you 3 ren 2 ) friend 诱变 (you 4 bian 4 ) mutagenesis 收编 (shou 1 bian 1 ) to incorporate armies 收盘 (shou 1 pan 2 ) to close 手足 (shou 3 zu 2 ) brothers 受贿 (shou 4 hui 4 ) to take bribes 搭车 (da 1 che 1 ) to get a lift 搭桥 (da 1 qiao 2 ) to build a bridge 打磨 (da 3 mo 2 ) to polish 大麦 (da 4 mai 4 ) barley 世间 (shi 4 jian 1 ) world 试航 (shi 4 hang 2 ) trial voyage 实情 (shi 2 qing 2 ) truth 史册 (shi 3 ce 4 ) historical records

30 汽车 (qi 4 che 1 ) car 汽油 (qi 4 you 2 ) gasoline 旗袍 (qi 2 pao 2 ) cheongsam 起义 (qi 3 yi 4 ) revolt 器官 (qi 4 guan 1 ) organ 气球 (qi 4 qiu 2 ) balloon 棋牌 (qi 2 pai 2 ) chess and cards 乞丐 (qi 3 gai 4 ) beggar 浴缸 (yu 4 gang 1 ) bathtub 预言 (yu 4 yan 2 ) to predict 鱼雷 (yu 2 lei 2 ) torpedo 语录 (yu 3 lu 4 ) quotation 市区 (shi 4 qu 1 ) urban area 市容 (shi 4 rong 2 ) appearance of a city 识别 (shi 2 bie 2 ) to identify 使坏 (shi 3 huai 4 ) to play dirty 误工 (wu 4 gong 1 ) absent from work 务农 (wu 4 nong 2 ) to be a farmer 无穷 (wu 2 qiong 2 ) infinite 舞剧 (wu 3 ju 4 ) dance drama

31 异心 (yi 4 xin 1 ) disloyalty 异同 (yi 4 tong 2 ) similarities and differences 疑难 (yi 2 nan 2 ) difficulty 椅背 (yi 3 bei 4 ) back of chair 滞销 (zhi 4 xiao 1 ) unsaleable 致癌 (zhi 4 ai 2 ) carcinogenic 植皮 (zhi 2 pi 2 ) skin grafting 纸币 (zhi 3 bi 4 ) paper money 面纱 (mian 4 sha 1 ) veil 面条 (mian 4 tiao 2 ) noodle 绵羊 (mian 2 yang 2 ) sheep 免税 (mian 3 shui 4 ) duty-free IV-3. No Sandhi targets (T4T4, T3T2 and T3T4) and respective competitors. Stimuli Log Freq. N. of Stroke Bigram Mutual Info. 1 继续 (ji 4 xu 4 ) to continue 季节 (ji 4 jie 2 ) season 机床 (ji 1 chuang 2 ) machine tool 挤压 (ji 3 ya 1 ) to press

32 意愿 (yi 4 yuan 4 ) wish 意图 (yi 4 tu 2 ) intention 衣橱 (yi 1 chu 2 ) closet 乙肝 (yi 3 gan 1 ) hepatitis B 事例 (shi 4 li 4 ) example 试图 (shi 4 tu 2 ) to attemp 师徒 (shi 1 tu 2 ) master and apprentice 史诗 (shi 3 shi 1 ) epic 教义 (jiao 4 yi 4 ) religious regulations 教程 (jiao 4 cheng 2 ) tutorial 交流 (jiao 1 liu 2 ) to communicate 脚尖 (jiao 3 jian 1 ) tiptoe 去世 (qu 4 shi 4 ) to pass away 去除 (qu 4 chu 2 ) to eliminate 屈服 (qu 1 fu 2 ) to surrender 取消 (qu 3 xiao 1 ) to cancel 上市 (shang 4 shi 4 ) to go on market 上扬 (shang 4 yang 2 ) to raise 伤员 (shang 1 yuan 2 ) the wounded 赏光 (shang 3 guang 1 ) to honor with presence

33 检查 (jian 3 cha 2 ) to check 检验 (jian 3 yan 4 ) to test 监狱 (jian 1 yu 4 ) jail 见解 (jian 4 jie 3 ) opinion 简直 (jian 3 zhi 2 ) simply 简历 (jian 3 li 4 ) resumé 监控 (jian 1 kong 4 ) to monitor 舰长 (jian 4 zhang 3 ) captain 主题 (zhu 3 ti 2 ) topic 主妇 (zhu 3 fu 4 ) housewife 猪肉 (zhu 1 rou 4 ) pork 住址 (zhu 4 zhi 3 ) home address 吻合 (wen 3 he 2 ) to match 稳重 (wen 3 zhong 4 ) steady 温度 (wen 1 du 4 ) tempareture 问好 (wen 4 hao 3 ) to greet 妥协 (tuo 3 xie 2 ) to compromise 妥善 (tuo 3 shan 4 ) appropriate 托运 (tuo 1 yun 4 ) to consign for shipment 拓展 (tuo 4 zhan 3 ) to develop

34 指明 (zhi 3 ming 2 ) to point out 纸币 (zhi 3 bi 4 ) paper money 枝叶 (zhi 1 ye 4 ) branches and leaves 质朴 (zhi 4 pu 3 ) simple 史册 (shi 3 ce 4 ) historical records 史前 (shi 3 qian 2 ) prehistory 失陪 (shi 1 pei 2 ) excuse me 试纸 (shi 4 zhi 3 ) dipstick 舞会 (wu 3 hui 4 ) Prom 舞台 (wu 3 tai 2 ) stage 巫婆 (wu 1 po 2 ) witch 物产 (wu 4 chan 3 ) resource 享誉 (xiang 3 yu 4 ) to enjoy fame 响铃 (xiang 3 ling 2 ) alarm 香浓 (xiang 1 nong 2 ) grumous 巷口 (xiang 4 kou 3 ) end of alley 手锯 (shou 3 ju 4 ) hand saw 守则 (shou 3 ze 2 ) regulation 收集 (shou 1 ji 2 ) to collect 瘦小 (shou 4 xiao 3 ) thin and small

35 17 18 暑假 (shu 3 jia 4 ) summer vacation 薯条 (shu 3 tiao 2 ) French fries 抒情 (shu 1 qing 2 ) to express one s emotions 术语 (shu 4 yu 3 ) terminology 简历 (jian 3 li 4 ) resumé 简洁 (jian 3 jie 2 ) concise 兼容 (jian 1 rong 2 ) compatible 健美 (jian 4 mei 3 ) fitness

36 Appendix V The full list of target sentences in different boundary conditions in Chapter 6. The critical Tx+N(NN)+T1+T1/T2 structure is marked in bold. V-1. Below-NP Boundary condition. Tx+N+T1T1: 他说他的猫偷走了那条大鱼 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ta 1 de mao 1 tou 1 zou 3 le na 4 tiao 2 da 4 yu 2.) He said his cat stole that big fish. 他说姨的猫听到了那个声音 (Ta 1 shuo 1 yi 2 de mao 1 ting 1 dao 4 le na 4 ge sheng 1 yin 1.) He said auntie's cat heard that sound. 他说姐的猫关上了那个小门 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 de mao 1 guan 1 shang 4 le na 4 ge xiao 3 men 2.) He said elder sister's cat shut that little door. 他说妹的猫吃完了那袋粮食 4 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 de mao 1 chi 1 wan 2 le na 4 dai 4 liang 2 shi.) He said younger sister's cat ate up that bag of grain. Tx+N+T1T2: 他说他的猫离开了那座房子 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ta 1 de mao 1 li 2 kai 1 le na 4 zuo 4 fang 2 zi.) He said his cat left that house. 他说姨的猫夺回了那条大鱼 (Ta 1 shuo 1 yi 2 de mao 1 duo 2 hui 2 le na 4 tiao 2 da 4 yu 2.) He said auntie's cat took back that big fish. 他说姐的猫迷上了那个游戏 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 de mao 1 mi 2 shang 4 le na 4 ge you 2 xi 4.) He said elder sister's cat was crazy about that game. 他说妹的猫学会了如何爬树 8 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 de mao 1 xue 2 hui 4 le ru 2 he 2 pa 2 shu 4.) He said younger sister's cat learned how to climb a tree. Tx+NN+T1T1: 他说妈妈的猫抓住了那只老鼠 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ma 1 ma de mao 1 zhua 1 zhu 4 le na 4 zhi 1 lao 3 shu 3.) He said mom's cat caught that mouse. 他说爷爷的猫拉住了那根绳子 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ye 2 ye de mao 1 la 1 zhu 4 le na 4 gen 1 sheng 2 zi.) He said grandpa' cat tugged that rope. 他说姐姐的猫叼走了那只小鸟 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 jie de mao 1 diao 1 zou 3 le na 4 zhi 1 xiao 3 niao 3.) He said elder sister's cat held that bird in the mouth. 169

37 他说妹妹的猫喝完了那盒牛奶 12 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 mei de mao 1 he 1 wan 2 le na 4 he 2 niu 2 nai 3.) He said younger sister's cat drank up that box of milk. Tx+NN+T1T2: 他说妈妈的猫拿走了那个玩具 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ma 1 ma de mao 1 na 2 zou 3 le na 4 ge wan 2 ju 4.) He said mom's cat took that toy. 他说爷爷的猫爬上了那棵老树 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ye 2 ye de mao 1 pa 2 shang 4 le na 4 ke 1 lao 3 shu 4.) He said grandpa's cat climbed up that old tree. 他说姐姐的猫玩坏了那个玩具 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 jie de mao 1 wan 2 huai 4 le na 4 ge wan 2 ju 4.) He said elder sister's cat destroyed that toy. 他说妹妹的猫停下了它的脚步 16 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 mei de mao 1 ting 2 xia 4 le ta 1 de jiao 3 bu 4.) He said younger sister's cat stopped walking. Tx+NNN+T1T1: 他说妈妈们的猫踢乱了那个线球 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ma 1 ma men de mao 1 ti 1 luan 4 le na 4 ge xian 4 qiu 2.) He said moms' cat kicked that thread ball into a mess. 他说爷爷们的猫推倒了那个鱼缸 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ye 2 ye men de mao 1 tui 1 dao 3 le na 4 ge yu 2 gang 1.) He said grandpas' cat push down that fish tank. 他说姐姐们的猫扑向了那只蝴蝶 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 jie men de mao 1 pu 1 xiang 4 le na 4 zhi 1 hu 2 die 2.) He said elder sisters' cat leapt on that butter. 他说妹妹们的猫追上了那只兔子 20 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 mei men de mao 1 zhui 1 shang 4 le na 4 zhi 1 tu 4 zi.) He said younger sisters' cat caught up with that rabbit. Tx+NNN+T1T2: 他说妈妈们的猫咳出了那根鱼刺 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ma 1 ma men de mao 1 ke 2 chu 1 le na 4 gen 1 yu 2 ci 4.) He said moms' cat coughed up that fish bone. 他说爷爷们的猫赢过了那条野狗 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ye 2 ye men de mao 1 ying 2 guo 4 le na4 tiao2 ye3 gou3.) He said grandpas' cat defeated that wild dog. 他说姐姐们的猫衔起了它的孩子 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 jie men de mao 1 xian 2 qi 3 le ta 1 de hai 2 zi.) He said elder sisters' cat held its kid in the mouth. 他说妹妹们的猫回到了它的小窝 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 mei men de mao 1 hui 2 dao 4 le ta 1 de xiao 3 wo 1.) He said younger sisters's cat went back to its little nest. 170

38 V-2. Subject-Predicate Boundary condition. Tx+N+T1T1: 他说妈妈收听了那个节目 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ma 1 ma shou 1 ting 1 le na 4 ge jie 2 mu 4.) He said mom listened to that program. 他说爷爷搜刮了很多钱财 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ye 2 ye sou 1 gua 1 le hen 3 duo 1 qian 2 cai 2.) He said grandpa took a lot of money. 他说姐姐招收了几个学生 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 jie zhao 1 shou 1 le ji 3 ge xue 2 sheng 1.) He said elder sister recruited several students. 他说妹妹发挥了她的实力 4 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 mei fa 1 hui 1 le ta 1 de shi 2 li 4.) He said younger sister gave play to her power. Tx+N+T1T2: 他说妈妈宣传了这次活动 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ma 1 ma xuan 1 chuan 2 le zhe 4 ci 4 huo 2 dong 4.) He said mom publicized this action. 他说爷爷缺乏了一些斗志 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ye 2 ye que 1 fa 2 le yi 4 xie 1 dou 4 zhi 4.) He said grandpa lacked the will to fight. 他说姐姐发觉了这种现象 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 jie fa 1 jue 2 le zhe 4 zhong 3 xian 4 xiang 4.) He said elder sister discovered this phenomenon. 他说妹妹追求了她的理想 8 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 mei zhui 1 qiu 2 le ta 1 de li 3 xiang 3.) He said elder sister pursued her dreams. Tx+NN+T1T1: 他说妈妈们听说了那件事情 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ma 1 ma men ting 1 shuo 1 le na 4 jian 4 shi 4 qing 2.) He said moms heard of that situation. 他说爷爷们张贴了一个广告 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ye 2 ye men zhang 1 tie 1 le yi 2 ge 4 guang 3 gao 4.) He said grandpas posted an advertisement. 他说姐姐们接收了那些病人 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 jie men jie 1 shou 1 le na 4 xie 1 bing 4 ren 2.) He said elder sisters took over those patients. 他说妹妹们牺牲了很多利益 12 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 mei men xi 1 sheng 1 le hen 3 duo 1 li 4 yi 4.) He said younger sisters sacrificed a lot of interest. Tx+NN+T1T2: 13 他说妈妈们安排了一次聚餐 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ma 1 ma men an 1 pai 2 le yi 2 ci 4 ju 4 can 1.) He said moms arranged a dinner. 171

39 14 15 他说爷爷们消除了一些误会 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ye 2 ye men xiao 1 chu 2 le yi 4 xie 1 wu 4 hui 4.) He said grandpas eliminated some misunderstandings. 他说姐姐们经营了一家餐厅 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 jie men jing 1 ying 2 le yi 4 jia 1 can 1 ting 1.) He said elder sisters operated a restaurant. 他说妹妹们坚持了那个信念 16 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 mei men jian 1 chi 2 le na 4 ge xin 4 nian 4.) He said younger sisters stuck to that belief. Tx+NNN+T1T1: 他说妈妈们的增加了三百块钱 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ma 1 ma men de zeng 1 jia 1 le san 1 bai 3 kuai 4 qian 2.) He said moms' increased by 300 yuan. 他说爷爷们的开发了新的产品 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ye 2 ye men de kai 1 fa 1 le xin 1 de chan 3 pin 3.) He said grandpas' developed new products. 他说姐姐们的分发了那堆课本 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 jie men de fen 1 fa 1 le na 4 dui 1 ke 4 ben 3.) He said elder sisters' distributed that pile of book. 他说妹妹们的装修了这个房子 20 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 mei men de zhuang 1 xiu 1 le zhe 4 ge 4 fang 2 zi.) He said younger sisters' decorated this house. Tx+NNN+T1T2: 他说妈妈们的收集了一堆古董 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ma 1 ma men de shou 1 ji 2 le yi 4 dui 1 gu 3 dong 3.) He said moms' collected a lot of antiques. 他说爷爷们的发扬了这项传统 (Ta 1 shuo 1 ye 2 ye men de fa 1 yang 2 le zhe 4 xiang 4 chuan 2 tong 3.) He said grandpas' promoted the tradition. 他说姐姐们的遵循了这种规律 (Ta 1 shuo 1 jie 3 jie men de zun 1 xun 2 le zhe 4 zhong 3 gui 1 lü 4.) He said elder sisters' followed this law. 他说妹妹们的收藏了很多珠宝 (Ta 1 shuo 1 mei 4 mei men de shou 1 cang 2 le hen 3 duo 1 zhu 1 bao 3.) He said younger sisters' collected meny jewelleries. 172