Author ANA LISA HEDSTROM Ana Lisa Hedstrom is known for her signature textiles based on contemporary adaptations of shibori. Her clothing designs and

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1 Arashi Shibori, Language of Stripes Ana Lisa HEDSTROM Independent artist / designer Summary Ana Lisa Hedstrom will share her experience and enthusiasm for Arashi Shibori pole wrapping. She will show examples and techniques from her new instructional DVD, Arashi Shibori, Language of Stripes. The use of plastic plumbing pipe instead of wooden poles has allowed the development of a new chapter in this little known Japanese process. The possibilities for creating patterns and pleats for art textiles and clothing seem endless. 317

2 Author ANA LISA HEDSTROM Ana Lisa Hedstrom is known for her signature textiles based on contemporary adaptations of shibori. Her clothing designs and art textiles are included in the collections of major museums including the Cooper Hewitt and the Museum of Art and Design in NY. She has exhibited internationally and has taught and lectured at numerous international conferences and schools. Her work has been frequently published including Memory On Cloth by Yoshiko Wada, Contemporary Art Quilt by Kate Lenkowsky and Makers by Janet Koplos. She has received two National Endowment of The Arts grants and was elected to be a fellow of the American Craft Council. 318

3 KUMO SHIBORI New Machine from Arimatsu Hiroaki KUNO, Dyewrks KUNO ( 久野染工場 ) Hiroaki works alongside his father in the studio/factory for dyeing, textile treatment such as cloque, devoree, etc. Finishing process with heat-set has been done especially for Issey Miyak Collection for the past 20 years. Summary:Demosntration 有松鳴海絞は 100 有余の絞り技法があり 世界に類の無い産地 として評価されています この中でも特に蜘蛛絞りは 有松鳴海絞を代表する技法として もっとも汎用的に使われている絞り技法です また 括るドット を大小さまざまな大きさにより表現でき いろいろな用途に使用 されています 今回 この蜘蛛絞り技法を機械的な工程を付加し 初心者でも絞 ることができるよう汎用的に開発したニューマシンを紹介します Arimatsu artisans have developed over 100 different techniques and their variation in patters in the past 400 years. One of the basic bound-resist techniques, kumo-shibori seems very basic yet offers possibility to vary in size, arrangement, and binding thread distribution, In my family dyeworks, we developed electric motor-run binding machine to enable beginners and artists to create a kumo-shibori quickly and with control. What you will demo 蜘蛛絞りのニューマシンの開発意図と活用についての紹介 Our goal for the new binding machine and its application. 蜘蛛絞りの絞り実演 How to use the machine. 来場者の蜘蛛絞り体験 Audience to experience and try binding with the machine. 319

4 Technology Shaping Tradition a Quilter s Romance with the Indigo Vat Lily LAM MoonGlow Studio, Introduction At the turn of the current millennium I retired from my 25 year career in computer software development and found time to pursuit my lifelong passion of working with textile. Since then Quilting became the focus of my creative expression and the computer remained a trusted friend that I call upon regularly to help me innovate and solve special problems. Quilting has led me to explore many related textile disciplines, including the traditional craft techniques and modern surface design innovations of Shibori. In this paper I shall recount some of my experiences with Shibori dyeing in indigo vat, present results from these experiences, and report on experiments using software tools in my design process. I shall start with a brief introduction about Quilting and Shibori, highlight the complimentary aspects of these two time-honoured textile traditions, and shall end with some personal thoughts regarding the use of common software applications as design tools, for both Quilting and Shibori. 2. Textile Traditions with Long and Complex History 2.1. Quilting Since human beings discovered the versatile properties of cloth textile, layers of materials has been sewn together to reinforce its protective capability and to enhance its function. In general terms, a quilt is made from three distinct layers of material by means of some sort of interlinking stitching. The surface layer can be a whole cloth, a patchwork or decorated using appliqué. No matter how the top layer of a quilt is made, it often serves an additional decorative role called upon by its visible nature. Traceable historic records revealed the many uses of quilts: as protective armour for army and cavalier in antiquity; elegant fashion for royalty; exclusive interior decoration as bedding and wall covering for the well-to-do; and a welcome source of warmth, pleasure, and personal expression for pioneering families in North America and elsewhere. The stories about quilts and quilting constitute a valuable historical archive about the development of Material Culture in societies all over the World. It is a treasure trove of loving memories and family heritage. Although, with the generally available amenities of modern living, most people in the World no longer depend on homemade quilts for warmth and comfort, family heirlooms and special gift made with care and stitched with love are highly prized. Quilt hobbyists continue to rise up to the challenge and often hold gatherings to turn out emergency beddings which provide needed comfort for the less fortunate. In the 1970s, following the highly visible Whitley Museum Quilt Exhibition in New York City, Quilting has been publicly recognized as a significant visual art form. Numerous talented, academically trained Fine Artists from different parts of the World chose to adopt Quilting as their creative medium and started the difficult journey of using colourful fabric as their palettes, needle and thread as instruments in place of paint and brushes. 320 Their dedications and pioneering efforts over the years transformed the material resource availability for Quilting and broaden the horizon with respect to ideas, concepts, tools and techniques. Currently, Quilting, be it for an artist, a professional, a hobbyist, or a homemaker, is supported by a multi-billion dollar Quilting industry and the associated social media network knows no physical boundary Shibori Shibori, the Japanese word for a family of resist-dyeing techniques, can boast an equally long and glorious history. Introduced to Japan from China during the Tang Dynasty, or the corresponding Nara period in 7 th century A.D., it has undergone much innovative adaptation there. Yet, the simple elegance and earthy sophistication of Shibori with its universal appeal had been discovered by almost all of the diverse cultural groups at some point of their development history. The artistry of Shibori represents the creative free spirit and resourcefulness of its practitioners. The variability of the results achievable with simple tools and the limitless manipulative differences are irresistible charms for many creative hands. It promises a wealth of opportunities for individuals seeking expressive outlets. A good example of this ubiquity is the popularization of tie-dyeing in North America during the 1960s and 70s. The subsequent innovative progress brought on by the many talented art-to-wear designers has been successful in maintaining perennial populous interest and continues to bring about resurging interests. 3. Surface Design and multidimensional texturing Quilting and Shibori are both lasting textile traditions from antiquity beyond human history. Along this long and eventful common timeline, both have been enriched by cross sharing of ideas and progress. In addition, Quilting and Shibori both possess unique emphasises in surface design and multidimensional texturing, making them complementary and compatible. I recognize these significant common grounds and these encouraged me to look for ways to combine their diverse techniques in my creative explorations. 4. My Personal Journey with the Indigo Vat 4.1. Initial contact and critical influences Shibori, as a surface design technique, captured my imagination in the fall of After visiting a special exhibition featuring the beautiful and inventive work of Ana Lisa Hedstrom at the Marsil Museum in Saint Lambert, Quebéc, I was inspired to sign up for the Shibori workshop offered by the Museum in conjunction with the Centre Design et Impression Textile de Montréal. There, I learned the basic approaches and obtained hands-on experiences with the Indigo Vat. I went home with increased fascination and a handful of indigo dyed samples. From these samples I made two small format quilts. Looking back, I recognized that these two small studies marked the beginning of my serious pursuit of Quilting as my chosen medium of creative expression.

5 Figure 1. Shibori I & Shibori II 4.2. Expending the Surface Design Horizon Three years passed when I found myself in a professional development workshop given by teacher and textile artist Holly Brackman from California, U.S.A. This 3-day workshop was offered at the Centre des Textiles Contemporains de Montréal and Holly was most generous in sharing her knowledge and expertise. I learned about Woven Shibori, a relatively novel technique developed by Cathatine Ellis in the early 1990s. It combines weaving with the principles of shaped-resist dyeing to create patterned hand-woven fabric. The workshop experience opened my horizon to the world of hand weaving. It also introduced me to contemporary surface design approaches in the context of shaped-resist dyeing, including the differences between dyes and pigments as colouring agents, and the processes of dye discharge and dévoré for special effects Rhythms in the Indigo Blue During the summer of 2008, with a couple of friends, we set up our little indigo vat and became immersed in Shibori. We experimented with many different techniques, sharing ideas and insights. With my blue and white pieces from these play sessions, I created a series of abstract quilts. I called them my Rhythms in the Indigo Blue because each of the quilts expresses a special rhythm resonating in me when I examined and interpreted the imprints on the dyed cloths. During the process of selecting, dissecting and re-assembling these fragments of indigo dyed pieces into quilt tops, I began to develop a deeper understanding and appreciation for the cause and effect of different mechanical manipulation methods and to visualize the many possibilities imaginable. For each completed quilt top, I would evaluate the composition to determine the appropriate quilting design that complements and completes the Shibori design. Some results from this experience are shown in Figures 2 9. Figure 3. Cosmic Resonance Figure 4. Fathoming Figure 5. Intrusion Figure 6. Sisters Figure 2. Andromeda 321

6 Figure 7. Solitude Figure 10. Star Burst Figure 8. Nova 5.2. Software image manipulation for abstraction and feature extraction In 2009 I had the opportunity of visiting the artisan district of Arimatsu and the fascinating Kimono Museum of the late Itchiku Kubota in my visit to Japan. After returning home, I gathered my courage to tackle an unfinished business. During the previous year, while looking for inspiration, I picked out several photo images from my photo collection as possible Shibori projects. I was confounded by the complexity of the design problem and after spending some time with these images decided to shelf the project. Now I felt ready. Figure 9. Night Flight 5. Computer-aided Design Processes 5.1. Drafting for accuracy and control Among the experiments used to create the Rhythm series was one where I enlisted the help of my computer. I wanted to find out to what extent I can control the outcome of my Shibori design. So I use drafting software to draft an accurate design of a pattern with two concentric rings of circles. The design consists of 17 well spaced circles of progressively increasing and decreasing radii centered on each of the two rings. The dimensional variations for each ring are exact opposites of each other. I returned to these photo images. Using software image manipulation filters provided by the software application GIMP, I was able to successfully abstract the key features of each image and produced a simplified line set for each image. Using these computer generated figures as starting point and the accumulated knowledge, I planned my stitching and binding strategies to produce the hand dyed results I was looking for. The long anticipated moment when I cut open the lumps of solid blue in my hand to reveal the nuanced blue and white images of my dream was exciting and magical. As a new attempt, I have to say that I was very pleased with the results. The processes and results of this experiment are illustrated in Figures This pattern was printed on paper and transferred onto cloth to be used as stitching and binding guide. Figure 10. shows the result and the quilt Star Burst which was made by combining this piece with two other pieces of Shibori cloth to produce an irregularly shaped wall quilt. 322

7 Figure 11. Spider Mum with detail of result Figure 13. First Frost 6. Future Considerations I routinely enlist the computer to perform useful tasks for my Quilting projects. Many of these do not require special set up or training, just the mindfulness for the possibilities. With the continually increasing computing power, the availability of flexible and versatile application software and the generally improving usability of computer hardware, software and gadgets, it is becoming a common practice to involve software application in our daily design and production processes. This new reality will become a constant. All we need is to open our eyes and our minds and to grasp the opportunities as they surface. Venturing and finding out are part of the fun. As Shibori enthusiasts, we should not be surprised. Author Figure 12. In the Garden with result and detail Lily Lam Quilt Maker--Artist Teacher--Certifier Judge After retiring from a successful career in computer software development, Lily evolved from an amateur quilter to a professional textile artist in the last decade. 323

8 Kakishibu(Persimon Dyeing)Introduction Hiroshi MURASE SUZUSAN Representative Aichi Prefecture Shibori industry Association :director World Shibori Network: Vice-Secretary-General Summary The Shibori using the Kakishibu (persimmon) dyeing technique is good for the environment. The natural brown color of persimon is changed to various colors by the mordant process after dyeing. Ist natural chic color and Shibori surface hermonize well on the surface. What you will demo Show textiles and traditional Kakishibu dyeing technique using odorless Kakishibu liquid and also powder which are developed last years. Example of design 1 (a) Miura Shibori and Kakishibu (b) Kikaigumo Shibori and Kakishibu (c) Y.Haraguchi Kakishibu 324

9 Sustainable Natural Dye Industry in China Liqun CHU 儲力群 Changzhou Yunqing Textiles Co. Ltd. 常州云卿紡織品有限公司 Summary After years of using chemical dyes for the textile industry, Mr Chu understands the harm done to health and environment. He revamped his business into doing natural dyes, in an industrial scale. Mr Chu will share his knowledge and experience in this area. 325

10 Shellfish Purple Dyeing Taeko YAMAMURA a, Reiko HARA b a Affiliation, International Workshop on Shellfish Purple dyeing, b Affiliation, International Workshop on Shellfish Purple dyeing, Summary The purple dye from shellfish, also variously known as Tyrian purple, purple of the Ancient, and Royal purple, was produced from the mucus of the hypobranchial gland of various species of marine mollusks. It is the oldest known pigment, the longest lasting, the subject of the first chemical industry, the most expensive and the best known since pre-roman times in the Mediterranean region. What you will demo There are some method of shellfish Purple Dyeing. Direct dye, Vat dye (the prepared shellfish purple is employed in reduction dye),liquid, powder and etc.. This Demo is Vat dye. This recipe is from Dr. Terada Takako. Steps and Process Vat dyeing with powdered shellfish purple Goods (silk, cotton); Xg, Powdered shellfish purple (DBI purity: 3% or less); 30% o.w.f Water ratio; 20~30 : 1 NaOH; 10~15g/L Na2S2O4; 15~30g/L Vatting; 80,10 min. Dyeing; 60,15~30min. Acknowledgements Dr. Terada Takako Professor Kwassui Women s College References Dr. Terada Takako 326

11 Uuu shooop!!! New Fashion in Indigo Maggie MAK A Hong Kong fashion label known for its unique style, and shop décor. They creative team often explore possibilities in both old and new textile crafts. In recent collections they have explored possibilities in indigo dye in Guizhou, China They will share their experience this project working with Miao traditional wax resist and indigo dyeing, which took over 18 months to create the collection. 327

12 Exploration of Chinese Paper Cut as Template for Shibori Artwork Hai Suo QIU 用剪纸做形防的新扎染工艺之探究 裘海索 中国美术学院染织与服装设计系 Abstract Paper cutting has long been a traditional Chinese folk art, different regions have different subject matters, materials, styles and techniques. As a child, I use to watch my mother making the papercuts, spending half a day to make different patterns. The freedom of playing with different ways of folding the paper and refolding to repeat and not repeat motifs is fascinating. I experimented using the paper cutting technique as template for shibori, stitching with plastic barrier, and dyeing with natural dyes. I share my experiments here in my paper 镂空剪刻虚实成花在镂空剪刻的剪纸花样中有阴纹和阳纹之分或兼而有之 一张剪纸花样在造型中各形皆须相连, 或以 搭桥 相接, 主题形象总是在虚实相衬中相得益彰 如图 1 2 中所示 摘要本文是针对中国传统扎染工艺特点而展开的传承发展性研究 文中叙述了作者对运用剪纸要素做形防的手工及半机械方式的扎染工艺和艺术表现力的新探索, 呈现了实践带来的成果 其拓展了传统绞缬染的造型语言 序言在我国古代称扎染为绞撷或扎撷, 亦称撮撷, 今天的我们似乎能从古人在用词上的不同而感受到他们在操作 扎染 时的差异 宋人胡三省在 资治通鉴音注 中说 : 撷, 撮采以线结之, 而后染色 ; 既染则解其结, 凡结处皆原色, 余则入染矣 其色斑斓谓之撷 这正是对当时扎染工艺的概括说明 我国劳动人民在长期的生产实践中已积累了丰富的扎染技法, 如 : 针缝扎染 捆扎扎染 折花扎染 拟形扎染 复次塑形扎染等等, 并在借助工具的使用上衍生出了诸如棍棒夹染 型版夹染 绘染加扎染等起花工艺 随之而逐渐形成的丰富且具有艺术感染力的扎染纺织品, 也正是我国人民审美情趣和生活需要的写照 然而, 承继民族文化典范, 开拓创新, 铸就新时代人民需要的染织美术则永远是时代发展的需要 作为对传统绞撷文化的爱好者的我, 对如何继承和发展它们有所思也有所行, 现将自己在剪纸艺术实践中获得的体会与传统扎染工艺结合所做的新扎染工艺实践与大家分享 1. 拟用于扎染的剪纸艺术要素分析剪纸是民间流行的一种历史悠久, 流传广泛的艺术形式, 在我国广大人民群众的生活中有着多种用途 它以在纸上镂空剪刻而呈现对内容的表达, 因地区传统文化的特点和使用目的等因素的差异而风格多样 但是, 它的构成要素则大致相同, 主要有镂空剪刻 虚实生花 折叠成骨 形形相连和 搭桥 相接等 图 1. 作品名称 : 牵牛花藤蔓与小鸟 ( 头稿 ) 技术构成要素 : 镂空剪刻, 形形相连, 搭桥 相接等 作者 : 裘海索 ; 创作时间 :2010 年 5 月图 2. 作品名称 : 爸爸妈妈与郁金香 ; 技术构成要素 : 镂空剪刻, 搭桥 相接, 阴 阳纹兼而有之等 作者 : 裘海索 ; 创作时间 :2010 年 4 月作者自述 : 第一个因剪纸让我感到无比神奇的人, 是我的母亲 在我幼年时, 看到过母亲一人在短短半天时间里, 剪出一墙的水浪 飞鸟和特大的轮船, 把本来较简陋的教室装饰得神采奕奕, 使整个教室里的孩子们感到快乐无比 长大之后, 我接触过我国南 北多派风格的剪纸, 在欣赏它们的同时, 也用此方法表达心曲 328

13 1.2. 折叠成骨构图多样剪纸图案在经营位置时也如画般自由, 有单独纹样 适合纹样和复合式纹样的对称 相对对称及不对称的构图形式 在对称性的构图中, 基本骨架主要有 米 和 井 字形两类, 它们多由折纸而来 这些骨骼可以作加 减或叠加以设计出更多的剪纸图案 图 3. 作品名称 : 窗外牵牛花与小鸟 单位图案 ; 构图要点 : 由折纸形成对称图案的骨架 作者 : 裘海索 ; 创作时间 : 2010 年 5 月笔者对其中由纸的折叠而带来的对称及重复的构图表现形式颇感兴趣 故此, 本文中的主要实践案例皆基于此要素 结合染织图案设计中根据用途和生产工艺条件的制约, 人们总是需要解决四方连续的问题 为此, 本人设定了该次实践的基本定义 : 通过折纸形成骨骼并使它成为四方连续的基本单位, 以形成完美的四方连接形式 如图 3 所示, 把单位图案的尺寸作了四方连接的定位, 并在其内部通过折纸形成镜照式成像的骨骼 在完成单位图案后做了在折叠比例不变条件下的连续实验 : 其一, 将其做一次性平接的四方连续 ( 图 4) 其次, 先在单位图案的上 下两边做镜照式的重复, 再做平接的四方连续, 形成二次性的平接连续构成 ( 图 5) 它们虽然都在同一折纸骨架的基础上形成连续结构, 但因两者连接方式不同, 纹样结果便不一 由此可见, 不同的连续纹样被如此方便的获得, 它们富有系列感和进一步扩展空间的可能性, 充满着张力 图 4 作品名称 : 窗外牵牛花与小鸟 连接方式 : 一次性平接的四方连续 作者 : 裘海索 ; 创作时间 : 2011 年 10 月 图 5. 作品名称 : 窗外牵牛花与小鸟 连接方式 : 二次性平接的四方连续 ( 先上下镜照式连续, 再四方平接连续 ) 作者 : 裘海索 ; 创作时间 :2011 年 10 月 2. 以剪纸做形防的织物扎染探究 在扎染工艺中, 如何扎? 如何染? 以及在什么织物上扎和用什么色料染? 正是体现扎染工艺文化发展和纹饰风格特点的重要方面 扎染工艺与其说是实现扎染花样设计的途径, 不如说它是扎染花样设计的一个重要的组成部分, 两者密不可分 在此笔者将叙述 329

14 如何尝试着把折纸形成连续性纹样的方法转化至织物, 并配以适合 图案表现的恰当的扎防法来塑造图案和在织物上获取用天然色料染 色的部分研究过程 2.1. 手工剪纸对称型图案在织物扎染中的运用根据 1.2. 折叠成骨构图多样 中的实践结果, 同理运用于蚕丝织物的扎染图案设计和制作之中 案例 1 为依剪纸图案做形防的丝绸扎染围巾 首先, 折叠围巾, 再裁出尺寸相当的图纸作好剪纸图案 如意久久 的设计, 并将其用无影笔描在折叠好的围巾织物上, 再用手工沿剪纸图案的廓型线回针平缝, 染色, 拆开缝线后, 即形成了有连续图案效果的围巾 如图 所示 该丝绸巾因经过密集的针线绗缝和抽拉作用, 还出现了似高花绸般的肌理效果 图 8. 在好描剪纸图案的折叠围巾料上做手工绗缝 图 9. 染好的围巾 图 6. 与折叠的围巾料相当的剪纸图案 图 7. 剪纸图案描在折叠好的围巾料上 图 10. 作品名称 : 丝绸围巾 如意久久 ( 拆掉绗缝线后围巾的最终效果, 有高花绸般的肌理 ) 作者 : 裘海索制作时间 :2010 年 9 月织物材料 : 蚕丝电力纺染料 : 天然色料案例 2, 用塑料纸做剪纸图形的形防扎染围巾 首先, 折叠围巾料, 以其折叠好的廓型尺寸剪出做图案的塑料纸, 在它上面绘出剪纸图案 稳定交流, 并用手工沿其造型线绗缝, 再用剪刀修剪掉图案以外的塑料纸, 染色, 拆线之后即可见此有连续几何图案的围巾 如下列图 中所示 330

15 图 11. 绘有图案的塑料纸与折叠好的布料外形一致 剪纸图案在手 工绗缝后, 剪掉图案以外部分 图 13. 半机械缝纫扎防染色 织物 : 蚕丝电力纺 染料 : 天然色料 图 14. 半机械缝纫扎防染色 织物 : 棉布染料 : 天然色料 图 12. 作品 : 丝绸围巾 稳定交流 围巾设计 : 裘海索制作时间 :2011 年 9 月织物材料 : 蚕丝电力纺染料 : 天然色料由手工缝纫的扎染图案造型空间大, 随意表现性强 并且, 由缝线抽拉的松紧度所引起的图案在晕色上的变化可以得到人为的掌控 2.2. 半机械剪纸图案型在织物中的扎防以上述实验为基础, 设置用半机械操作代替全手工做 扎防 根据图案设计的需要, 缝纫机械品种可以采用制鞋手摇机或普通制衣缝纫机 实验证明, 用此方法也能获得良好的扎染图案效果 值得注意的是, 用半机械来操作扎染工艺中的前道工序 扎, 须提前做好对布料在机器上可容纳最厚可穿透层数的测试 有此数据才能将扎染图案造型用的布料控制在可折叠层数的范围之内 同时, 还需测试机缝线的松紧度及缝线间的疏密度与防染的关系 设计机缝扎染图案之前, 只有先对布料与机器适应度做了测试实验后, 有了充分认识, 才能设计出良好的符合制衣缝纫机或缝鞋机的用剪纸做形防的扎染图案 在缝图案前可先用无影笔在布上描出剪纸图案的廓型线或用绘有图案的塑料纸垫衬缝纫 与 2.1. 中所采用的方法一致, 只是用机缝代替了手缝 如图 所示 总结 2.2. 中的实践经验, 我们完全可以设想采用全自动绣花机来做 扎 防工序 同理, 在图案设计上, 仍该以充分认识织物与机器的适应性关系 预计设置此工艺流程也同样能获得良好的扎染图案的表达 2.3 天然色料在织物的剪纸形防扎染上的着色如何让扎好的织物着上天然的色彩是个古老的话题, 很久以前的先人以自然色做纺织的着色物, 如今人们又回到了这个原点, 但是其在实用意义上的概念已被颠覆, 旨在追求绿色环保的健康纺织品 案例 1, 参见图 13, 准备天然染色材料 : 两只石榴皮 明矾等 将石榴皮放入盛水小锅炖煮, 将扎好的织物先放入 h-w 液中浸湿, 然后放入小锅, 加入适量明矾, 待织物得色至满意的程度时便可关掉炉中的火, 冷却后, 将织物取出, 再放入 h-w 液中浸泡, 后经漂洗便获得此着色物 案例 2, 参见图 19 20, 准备天然染色材料 : 一斤紫薯 明矾等 先将紫薯洗净, 备大锅盛水齐煮, 取其汤汁用来染布 布料的前 后道处理和煮染要求同上 天然色素成为织物染料的例子可谓不胜枚举 如果我们把周遭的一些自然材料加以恰当的利用, 那么不少有益于健康的纺织品便会贴近我们的肌肤 331

16 3. 剪纸形防扎染的图案生成分析 以剪纸做形防, 犹如借用形板作夹防, 被防染的造型形象必因形 板之形而产生 然而, 剪纸形防与形板夹防相比, 具有更加丰富的 图形生成空间 其呈像原因主要如下 : 3.1. 依剪纸廓型塑造织物扎染图案依照剪纸图案的廓型用手针做扎防, 能取得拟定图案廓型的多种纹样效果 这取决于如何做绞扎防染 采用什么方式 扎? 采用什么针法缝? 都是关呼成像的细节 在传统的扎染中有多种手针做扎防的针法, 如 : 单层平缝 回针平缝 对折串缝 小梅花串缝 绕针串缝等等 不同的缝法对同一图案廓型而言, 结果则有可能出现个性特点迥异的纹样 下列以传统 如意 形剪纸图案为例, 做 3 种扎法的实验, 如图 和 19 所示 在图 15 中采用了对折串缝针法做廓型线, 图 16 中则采用了绕针串缝做廓型线, 图 17 中部的扎防用针方法与图 18 及图 19 的一致, 均采用了单层平缝针法 可见它们拥有各自的图案特点 图 17. 用单层平缝做外廓型线图 作品名称 : 手帕 如意 ; 手帕材料 : 棉布 ; 作者 : 裘海索 ; 图 15. 用对折串缝做廓型线 图 18. 作品名称 : 围巾 如意相连 作者 : 裘海索围巾材料 : 棉布染料 : 天然色料 图 16. 用绕针串缝做廓型线 图 19. 作品名称 : 围巾 如意向心 作者 : 裘海索围巾材料 : 棉布染料 : 天然色料 332

17 图 20. 为图 19 中未拆线的围巾状 3.2. 依剪纸虚实之形塑造织物扎染图案剪纸图案的总体特点是由镂空剪刻而形成的面线 虚实对比下的形象 因此, 用此要素做扎染的图案造型可以做以下尝试 : (1) 集线成虚面, 将绗线排列成具有较强防染作用的密度起到防染, 形成虚面的作用 如图 21 和图 23 所示, 将绗缝线顺图案廓型线平行排列起到较好的防染作用, 表达了依剪纸虚实形来塑造扎染图案的效果 (2) 用绕针串缝, 形成较好的块面防染效果 如图 16 和图 17 中部的图形所示, 有较好的块面防染作用 (3) 贴防水异物并绗缝, 产生直接的块面防染效果, 反之可获得块面的得色 如图 所示 (4) 折叠并绕针缝也能直接迅速地达到防染的目的, 但是只适合部分剪纸型图案的塑造, 多在边缘部分使用 图 23. 作品名称 : 丝绸围巾四季如意 ; ( 于塑料纸上做密集平行排列的绗缝线, 获得较好的由防染而形成的虚面效果 ) 作者 : 裘海索围巾材料 : 丝绸电力纺染料 : 天然色料 3.3. 依剪纸折叠骨架塑造织物扎染图案事实上在该文中出现的所有配图, 均为依剪纸折叠骨架的造型原理而设计的扎染图案 其基本的折叠骨架不外乎是 米 和 井 字形, 与剪纸折叠骨架的图案造型类似 如图 24 至 27 所示 图 21. 将绗缝线排列形成较强的防染作用 图 24. 由折叠织物带来的 米 和 井 骨骼的叠加的扎染图案 裘海索 2010 年 5 月 图 22. 贴防水异物并用平缝做外廓型线 图 25. 由折叠织物带来的 米 和 井 骨骼的叠加的扎染图案 裘海索 2010 年 5 月 333

18 图 26. 由折叠织物带来的 井 骨骼的扎染图案 裘海索 2010 年 5 月 图 28. 图 27. 由折叠织物带来的 井 骨骼的扎染图案 裘海索 2010 年 5 月 3.4. 随物形赋剪纸图案以塑造织物扎染图案由于剪纸图案的设计制作便利, 与某一设计需要的纺织品外形结合在一起作整体设计, 也不失为一个良好的构思 比如, 一件裙子 上衣或被面 靠垫等等, 把剪纸图案设计与物品样板裁片甚至是成品结合着构思 布局并加以制作, 往往也会收获想象之中却又在预料之外的惊喜 因扎染图案在制作的过程中蕴藏着许多可变的因素, 会因晕色 扎纹的偶然性生存和由折叠 绞 扎等带来的富有特色的花样和肌理 当我们与某一廓型中的织物一起做图案的构想, 也是在以不同的形式做适合图案, 而且在实现这种适合图案的过程中也为天作之合提供了契机 图 在成衣基础上以剪纸图案为基础做扎染图案 裘海索 2010 年 12 月结语在传统的剪纸和扎染工艺的要素中, 体现着先辈们在劳动创造中产生的智慧, 它们也是今天该工艺文化发展的基因 将两者的要素相结合, 以探求新质的工艺产生方式, 对于人们已经充分认识到保护民族民间传统文化特质重要性的今天, 有着重要而积极的意义 文化的创新发展, 需要有良好的生态环境, 犹如人类生命体质延续所需要的环境一般,DNA 只总在新生命的诞生中得到延续 因此, 成就时代需要的具有新质的新民艺, 才能使传统文化有意义的活在当下 让我们从学习实践中去认识优秀传统文化的要素, 结合时代发展的需要, 结合艺术家自身的特点, 为我国优秀传统文化要素间的相遇设置机会和条件, 发展出更多新的扎染工艺文化, 为我们的时代去创作更多时代的佳作 人民需要的产品 334

19 2010 My Travel over Traditional Industries of Japan Shoj FUJII Nagoya City University School of Design & Architecture, Summary In 2010, I took a leave absence from a university for one year went for the travel over Japanese traditional industries. The purpose was to investigate how our generation should face each other for traditional industries from now on. I will show you my discovery in the actual place of Japanese industries with a video in the short talk. 1. Opportunity of the travel I am studying design in the university. In 2008, triggered by having participated in the cooperative project between a maker of Shibori and the university, I came to think about the relations of traditional industries and design deeply. I wanted to do the design that benefitted the producing district and I decided to set off the journey to watch the actual state of various traditional industries directly. 2. In the travel I went around many traditional industries while doing backpacking. I could experience the techniques, crops of raw materials, and talking with artisans a lot on the spot Material Kochi is famous as the producing district of Japanese paper. Kozo used for Japanese paper varies in quality by a growth condition, and the management by the people is necessary for steady supply. It needs many steps to get the pure white fiber that composes Japanese paper. That is the same in the manufacturing papermaking with the machine, and decrease of the people taking charge of the processes to get the material becomes a big problem. Work to scrape off the surface of the bark of Kozo Technique In making iron kettle in Iwate, the artisan making a handle of the kettle is different from the artisan who makes the main body. The artisan making a handle changes an ordinary iron plate and bar into various forms by hammering. A machine cannot give material an original form even if it can copy same form. It is only a person knowing material well to enable it. In making traditional iron kettle, the body is a casting and the handle is a forging. In the papermaking, this process is just a part. He changes an iron bar into the handle of the kettle one after another. 335

20 2.3. People In making the abaca cloth of Kijoka, Okinawa, the people carry through posture to follow the tradition rigidly. Although total amount of production is not much, they cope with both fostering successors and producing. Experts and younger members were working together using traditional techniques and handiwork. The head who gathered them took responsibility as the leader, and her existence supported textile of Kijoka. Preferably I think that it should be introduced to not only making a specific artifact, but also a place of education widely more. It would require to set up places of the education through handiwork in each area, and to define again to apply the techniques to various making. 4. What will I do? I had been able to receive the best education for this one year visiting each place. I want to do making traditional industries accessible and friendly for many people and conduct educational workshops through making things by hand. Now, I go to the town of Shibori, Arimatsu where such a movement is beginning. I want to make use of my experience here. The difference in state of the thread just appears as a striped pattern on cloth. Experts and younger members are in the field together to harvest Basho. 3. The end of the travel In the traditional technique and handiwork, important information lie concealed that is a way of better approach to the nature and material. I was convinced that was the basic of the creation and benefit all the people. In Arimatsu, the base of workshop through making things by hand is set up in August in Author Shoji Fujii Age: 23 Major: Textile Nagoya city university school of design and architecture The work that I made with applying the technique of Shibori to woodwork while traveling 336