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1 Social Policy & Social Work Vol. 15, No. 2, December 2011, pp ICF * ** * ( H MY2) Society for Social Studies of Science 2010 ** (07)

2 188 ICF ICF ICF

3 World Health Organization WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health ICF ICF

4 190 ICF ICF ICF

5 [ ]

6 192 ICF : : :

7

8 194 ICF

9

10 196 ICF ICF ICF 2006

11 ICF 2011 Body Functions and Body Structures Activities and Participation Environmental Factors Personal Factors ICF 2010

12 198 ICF Talcott Parsons 1950 sick role 194 impaired role Gordon, 1966 rehabilitation role Safilio-Rothschild, 1970 disabled role Stone,

13 administrative category Stone 1984 Stone,

14 200 ICF Stone, 1984 needs assessment

15 Abraham Harold Maslow 1943 needhierarchy theory Maslow Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass Maslow 1954: 236 Maslow ICF

16 202 ICF ICF universalism ICF ICF 1 ICF Stone

17 Blaxter, 1976 intra-physician interphysician Willems and Vrankrijker, 2002 Howards et al., 1980: 129 N. D. Jewson X Stigmar et al., 2010

18 204 ICF ICF Verbrugge and Jette, 1994 Nagi, 1964; Simeonsson, 2011 Haber and Smith, 1971; 2011 Rosenberg, 1986 Parsons secondary gain

19 malingering gatekeeper Stone 1984 deception 1909 Landolt C C Prince, 1956; Fahle and Mohn,

20 206 ICF 2 ICF ICF ICF

21 bs bsde ICF ICF ICF WHO ICF activity limitation participation restriction

22 208 ICF ICF ICF 3 ICF

23 湾 Nagi (ICF) ICF

24 210 ICF 2009 ICF ICF 国 ICF (1963)

25 Blaxter, M. (1976). The Meaning of Disability: A Sociological Study of Impairment. London: Heinemann. Fahle, M. and G. Mohn (1989). Assessment of Visual Function in Suspected Ocular Malingering, British Journal of Ophthalmology, 73 (8): Gordon, G. (1966). Role Theory and Illness: A Sociological Perspective. New Haven: Connecticut College and University Press. Haber, L. D. and R. T. Smith (1971). Disability and Deviance: Normative Adaptations of Role Behavior, American Sociological Review, 36 (2): Howards, I., H. P. Brehm and S. Z. Nagi (1980). Disability: From Social Problem to Federal Program. New York: Praeger. Jewson, N. D. (1976). The Disappearance of the Sick Man from Medical Cosmology, , Sociology, 10 (2): Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review, 50 (4): Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper. Nagi, S. Z. (1964). A Study in the Evaluation of Disability and Rehabilitation Potential, American Journal of Public Health and the Nation s Health, 54 (9): Parsons, T. (1979). The Social System. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Prince, J. H. (1956). A New Test for Visual Malingering, American Journal of Ophthalmology, 42 (5): Rosenberg, C. E. (1986). Disease and Social Order in America: Perceptions and Expectations, Milbank Quarterly, 64 (Suppl 1):

26 212 ICF Safilio-Rothschild, C. (1970). The society and social psychology of disability. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America. Simeonsson, R. J. (2011). Introduction to the ICF/ICF-CY. Taipei: The ICF Association, Early Intervention Association & Association of Rehabilitation Medicine. Stigmar, K., B. Grahn and C. Ekdahl (2010). Work Ability Experiences and Perceptions among Physicians, Disability and Rehabilitation, 32 (21): Stone, D. A. (1984). The Disabled State. London: Macmillan Publishers. Verbrugge, L. M. and A. M. Jette (1994). The Disablement Process, Social Science & Medicine, 38 (1): Willems, H. and M. K. Vrankrijker (2002). Work Disability in the Netherlands: Data, Conceptual Aspects, and Perspectives, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 44 (6):

27 Who Are the Disabled: An Examination of the Application of ICF in Light of the History of Disability Evaluations in Taiwan Tasing Chiu * Abstract Policy and practices for evaluating people with disabilities in Taiwan have changed extensively over the past 100 years. This study first traces the changes in the disability evaluation system and the medicalization of disability in Taiwan. Then this study tries to answer three main questions: What is disability? Why is disability evaluation needed? Why it is mainly based on medical examination? The concepts of disabled role, administrative category, and needy group are used to explain the use and limit of the medical examination of impairment. This study concludes by discussing the implications for the new disability assessment system in Taiwan. Keywords: disability, evaluation, needs assessment, ICF, policy archeology * Associate Professor, Department of Medical Sociology and Social Work, Kaohsiung Medical University. Received: 11 April 2011 Accepted: 1 December 2011

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