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1 // H

2 44 95% deaf children hearing parents Hindley, 2002 Bilingual Model Marschark, Hindley(2000) 1970 / Hindley, (deaf culture) / / (Deaf)

3 45 Wallis,Musselman MacKay(2004) Nichols(1993) Luetke-Stahlman Luetke-Stahlman Marschark Marschark 2004 Luetke-Stahlman

4 46 (Cued Speech) (mental health) 2002 Hindley(2000) 95% (grief) (social network) (professional network) (Hindley, 2000) Hindley (2000) (Hindley, 2002 Greenberg(2000) Lederberg Golbach (2002) 23 Wallis Musselman MacKay(2004) 57 15

5 (empowerment) 兹 A A B ( C

6 48 ( D ( E E E SONY (1)(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (protocol) Sony / 1

7 Patton 1995 (member checking) 13 A 1 A B B

8 50 C D D D E 2 CD ( C ) 3 B CD E loop T 4 A B C A C DE 5 A AC D E Greenberg 2000 ( B) 1 A,B,CC D (C ) 2

9 51 A,C,D,E A A B B B C D D D ( D D D) E (E ) (D,E) E 1 2 1

10 52 A B C D E E 2 AB D B C D E C E 3 B C D E D 4 C C E 5 A BB C D E E 6 A B CD E

11 53 D 7 A A A B B C DD D D D D E E 1 A

12 54 B C D E DE 2 C D E 3 B C C D 4 A,C,D D D 5 B D Ma rscha rk (2004)

13 55 Stewart & Schein, A,B,C A B B C D D E 2 A C C C D E 3 B D D D 4 C B 2 A B CB

14 56 D E 3 A,B,C,D E B D D D E D,E A,B,C 1 C A B 2 C B B 3 A A A 4 C A B

15 57 A B C D 1 C 2 A B B 3 B 4 B C A C 1 C 2 A 1 2 C B

16 58 3 C A 4 ( A ) 5 A 6 A 7 A A A A / B D E B C E B A D E (teenager)

17 59 (Schein & Stewart 1995) A C C D E B D A,C,E C,E E B A,B,C B C D E 1 (C ) A 2 (1)(A ) (2) B (3) (B ) (4)

18 60 D 3 (1) (A,C,D,E) (2) (D )(3) (D )(4) (E ) 4 E 5 D 6 (A ) 1 C A 2 (A) 3 (A) 1 (A) 2 (A) vs. vs. ( Hindley, ) (Marschark, 1997) (Hindley, 2000 Wallis, Musselman, & MacKay, 2004)

19 61 vs. vs. / 13 Hindley P. (2002) Patton, M. Q Schein, J.D., & Stewart, D.A (4),

20 62 (Marschark, M.) ,12, , (Luetke-Stahlman, B.) 2000 Greenberg, M. T. (2000). Educational intervention: Prevention and promotion of competence. In Peter Hindley and Nick Kitson (Eds.). Mental health and deafness, London: Whurr. Hindley, P. (2000). Child and adolescent psychiatry, In Peter Hindley and Nick Kitson (Eds.) Mental health and deafness, London: Whurr. Lederberg A. R., & Golbach, T. (2002). Parenting stress and social support in hearing mothers of deaf and hearing children: A longitudinal study. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(4), Luetke-Stahlman, B. (1998). The efficacy of SEE: An annotated bibliography of SEE II and related research. ERIC Document Service No. ED Marschark, M. (1997). Raising and educating a deaf child. New York: Oxford University Press. Nichols, M. (1993). Family communication and the right to sign. Perspectives in Education and Deafness, 12(1), Schein, J. D., & Stewart, D. A. (1995). Language in motion Exploring the nature of sign. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press. Wallis, D. W., & Musselman, C., & MacKay, S. (2004). Hearing mothers and their deaf children: The relationship between early, ongoing mode mach and subsequent mental health functioning in adolescence. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9(1),

21 63 Perceptions of hearing parents and deaf children on language, communication, and parenting experiences National University of Tainan Abstract The aims of this study are to explore language, communication, and parenting issues faced by families of hearing parents (HP), deaf children (DC), and hearing siblings. Through the recommendation of parent and deaf organizations, five case families were chosen. The first (hearing) and the second (deaf) researchers plus a sign language interpreter visited those families and interviewed 13 persons in total. All interviews were recorded by a digital camera and field notes. Result findings of this study are: a) for language/communication: HP considered spoken language, sign language, and written language as all equally important b) for parenting: The real parenting roles are assumed by hearing mothers all hearing parents experienced mental adaptation process for having deaf children, from shock toward acceptance. Hearing parents admitted that poor and unmatched communication modes between HP and DC is one key dilemma of their parenting issues. Some deaf children have mental problems, including easily get tantrums, full of suspicion, and they have lower self-image. Besides, most DC expected their HP to learn and use sign language to communicate with them. The conclusions are that parenting and communication experiences for HP and DC with different communication modes and hearing status are not easy for both parties to adapt. At last, both HP and DC emphasized the importance of academic tutoring, sign language interpretation, mental health, and employment services for deaf people. Key word: hearing parents, deaf children, parenting, communication, sign language, speech, spoken language, siblings

22 64

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: () (),, ; 30, 70, ( 10, 1, 10, ) A. B. C. D. [ ] 2. A. B. C. D. [ ] 3. A. B. C. D. [ ] 4. A.1775 B.1787 C.1674 D.1636 [ ] : () (),, ; 30, 70, 100 150 10 20 20 20 30 1. ( 10, 1, 10, ) A. B. C. D. [ ] 2. A. B. C. D. [ ] 3. A. B. C. D. [ ] 4. A.1775 B.1787 C.1674 D.1636 [ ] 5. A. B. C. D. [ ] 6. A.9 B.11 ( )1 (8 ) C.12 D.13

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