Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences Vol. 43 No. 2 Mar. 2019,,, Rossby [J]., 43 (2): Zhang Chao, Tan Yanke, Li Chongyin

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1 Vol. 43 No. 2 Mar. 2019,,, Rossby [J]., 43 (2): Zhang Chao, Tan Yanke, Li Chongyin, et al Influences of interactions between high-frequency eddies and low-frequency variabilities on the process of Rossby wave breaking [J]. (in Chinese), 43 (2): , doi: /j.issn Rossby 张潮 1 谭言科 2 李崇银 1, 3 平已川 / LASG NCEP/DOE NCEP-DOE AMIP-II AWB K PV EOF PV PV EOF EOF Rossby (2019) P432 A doi: /j.issn Influences of Interactions between High-Frequency Eddies and Low- Frequency Variabilities on the Process of Rossby Wave Breaking ZHANG Chao 1, TAN Yanke 2, LI Chongyin 1, 3, and PING Yichuan 1 1 Meteorological and Oceanography College, National University of Defense Technology, Nanjing Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences & Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Abstract Based on NCEP-DOE AMIP-II (National Centers for Environmental Prediction, U.S. Department of Energy, Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project II) daily reanalysis data, a typical case of Anticyclonic Wave Breaking (AWB) that occurred on 20 December 2010 in the North Pacific region and the characteristics of Isentropic Potential Vorticity (IPV) during this process were studied. Daily high-frequency eddies and low-frequency variabilities were investigated. In addition, research was conducted on the modes of high-frequency eddies and low-frequency variabilities through Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method on 350 K isentropic surface in the winter of Budget analysis of the ; Funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants , , )

2 Vol. 43 IPV was employed to examine the low-frequency and high frequency PV anomalies associated with the primary modes of EOF. The results show that during the process of the Rossby wave breaking, low PV air parcels that emerged over the Northwest Pacific near Japan traveled to the upper troposphere, while high PV air parcels invaded lower troposphere. The first two leading modes of high-frequency PV depict a middle-latitude wave train that propagated from west to east over the North Pacific. The first leading mode of the low-frequency PV spread in the North Pacific as an arched wave train. The track of synoptic waves could be altered by the low-frequency variability, causing the waves to break eventually; meanwhile, the advection of high-frequency flows contributed to the conversion of the primary mode from high-frequency variability to low-frequency variability in the winter. Keywords Rossby wave breaking, Isentropic surface, Potential vorticity, High-frequency eddy, Low-frequency variability 1 Cai and Mak, 1989;, 1994;, 1999;, 2002 Kug et al Luo et al EBM Eddy-Blocking Matching Rossby Rossby Thorncroft et al., 1993; Song et al., 2011 Benedict et al NAO NAO Woollings et al NAO Rossby NAO Rossby Song et al PNA NAO PNA NAO PNA Rossby Akahori and Yoden 1997 Barnes and Hartmann 2012 Liu et al Rossby Rossby Rossby Rossby Rossby Rossby EOF 2 NCEP-DOE Kanamitsu et al., Butterworth Gauss EOF 2005 IPV Hoskins et al., Hoskins et al IPV-thinking

3 2 No. 2 Rossby ZHANG Chao et al. Influences of Interactions between High-Frequency Eddies and Low- Frequency Variabilities 223 Hoskins 2015 Liu et al., K middle world Hoskins, 1991; Song K 40 N 150 W Fig. 1 Power spectrum of PV (Potential Vorticity) at (40 N, 150 W) on the 350-K isentropic surface et al., 2011 Strong and Magnusdottir K Rossby 350 K 350 K PV Potential Vorticity AWB Anticyclonic Wave Breaking 350 K K 40 N 150 W Rossby 2 AWB a 16 b 17 c 18 d 19 e 20 f K PV 1 PVU 1 PVU=10 6 km 2 kg 1 s 1 Fig. 2 Evolution of PV on 350-K isentropic surface on (a) 16, (b) 17, (c) 18, (d) 19, (e) 20, (f) 21 December Interval of contours is 1 PVU (1 PVU=10 6 km 2 kg 1 s 1 )

4 Vol a 150 E PV PV PV 18 2c PV N 19 2d PV 20 2e PV 21 2f 330 K 320 K 3 AWB 320 K 500 hpa 40 N 4 4d e AWB 200 hpa 500 hpa 850 hpa PV PV Butterworth d Gauss 9 d 2009 Butterworth d a 2 35 N 145 E 55 N 155 W 17 5b N c 20 N d e 21 2f a 40 N 40 N 30 N 30 N N 130 W 40 N 40 N 160 W I II III IV II IV I III b 6c II IV I III d e PV II 5

5 2 No. 2 Rossby ZHANG Chao et al. Influences of Interactions between High-Frequency Eddies and Low- Frequency Variabilities a 16 b 17 c 18 d 19 e 20 f K Pa s hpa 5 K Fig. 3 Vertical velocity on 320-K isentropic surface (shadings, units: Pa s 1 ; positive indicates downward movement; negative indicates upward movement) and temperature at 500 hpa (contours, interval is 5 K) on (a) 16, (b) 17, (c) 18, (d) 19, (e) 20, (f) 21 December a 16 b 17 c 18 d 19 e 20 f K Pa s hpa 5 K Fig. 4 Vertical velocity on 350-K isentropic surface (shadings, units: Pa s 1 ; positive indicates downward movement; negative indicates upward movement) and temperature at 200 hpa (contours, interval is 5 K) on (a) 16, (b) 17, (c) 18, (d) 19, (e) 20, (f) 21 December 2010

6 Vol. 43 III III-1 III-2 III-1 III-2 IV a 16 b 17 c 18 d 19 e 20 f K 0.5 PVU Fig. 5 High-frequency PV on 350-K isentropic surface on (a) 16, (b) 17, (c) 18, (d) 19, (e) 20, (f) 21 December Interval of contours is 0.5 PVU a 16 b 17 c 18 d 19 e 20 f K 0.5 PVU Fig. 6 Low-frequency PV on 350-K isentropic surface on (a) 16, (b) 17, (c) 18, (d) 19, (e) 20, (f) 21 December Interval of contours is 0.5 PVU

7 2 No. 2 Rossby ZHANG Chao et al. Influences of Interactions between High-Frequency Eddies and Low- Frequency Variabilities 227 Chang and Yu, hpa 40 N 150 W Hoskins and Valdes, 1990 EOF 8 EOF EOF l % EOF l 1 30 N N 135 W 4 EOF 7 EOF EOF h 1 EOF h 2 EOF h 1 EOF h % 9.19% 18.94% EOF h 1 7a 35 N 150 E 40 N 155 W 35 N N 120 W EOF h 2 7b 35 N 135 E 40 N 160 W 40 N 110 W 35 N 170 E 40 N 140 W EOF h 1 EOF h 2 π/2 EOF h 1 EOF h 2 30 N 50 N c 7 EOF a b c 0.2 PVU Fig. 7 (a) The first leading EOF mode, (2) the second leading EOF mode of high-frequency PV and (c) amplitudes of the first two leading modes. Interval of the contours is 0.2 PVU 8 EOF A B C 0.2 PVU Fig. 8 The first leading mode of the low-frequency PV. A, B, and C represent three regions of the low-frequency PV anomalies, respectively. Interval of contours is 0.2 PVU

8 Vol N N 100 W EOF 5 Hoskins et al., 1985; Derome et al., 2001; Athanasiadis and Ambaum, 2010 dpv PV PV V PV PV dt t 1 V k ( F ) S, 1 PV ( f ) / Ertel = k V V ( uv,,0) 1 g p/ d /dt k F 1 S PV V PV. 2 t Y l h Derome et al., 2001 Y Y Y Y Y Y l Y h Y l Y h d 9 d 2 t t t l h PV PV PV, 3 2 V V V V l h PV PV PV PV l l l l h V PV V PV V PV h h l h h V PV V PV V PV Adv1 Adv2 Adv3 Adv4 Adv5 Adv6 Adv7 Adv8 Adv9 A 30 N 60 N 150 W 120 W B 35 N 60 N 150 E 160 W C 20 N 35 N 150 E 160 W 3 4 9a 9b 9a A C 5 20 N 180 B 5 20 A C B 9b 19 A B A B A B 20 A B A B 20 C

9 2 No. 2 Rossby ZHANG Chao et al. Influences of Interactions between High-Frequency Eddies and Low- Frequency Variabilities PVU d 1 a b Fig. 9 Evolutions of PV tendency (units: PVU d 1 ): (a) High-frequency PV tendency; (b) low-frequency PV tendency Adv1 Adv1 8 A B C Adv2 Adv4 Adv5 Adv9 9 d Adv3 Adv6 Adv7 Adv d Adv2 Adv4 Adv3 Adv7 Adv6 Adv8 K h K l [K h K l K h +K l ] Adv6 Adv8 Adv9 Morlet % A B C Adv2 Adv4 Adv9 Adv5 Adv3 Adv7 A B C Adv6 Adv8 A B Adv6 C Adv8 B B 10 B Adv3 Adv6 Adv7 Adv3 Adv7

10 Vol B Fig. 10 Wavelet spectra of the advection terms during the wave breaking over region B. The black and blue solid lines represent spectrum values of the advection terms, the red and pink lines represent red and white noise spectra, respectively B Adv6 11 Adv6 Adv6 20 N Adv6 Adv6 Adv6 B Adv2 Adv4 Adv9 Adv2 Adv4 B Adv AWB EOF PV PV 2

11 2 No. 2 Rossby ZHANG Chao et al. Influences of Interactions between High-Frequency Eddies and Low- Frequency Variabilities a 16 b 17 c 18 d 19 e 20 f 21 Adv6 PVU d 1 Fig. 11 Advection term from low-frequency flow to high-frequency PV (Adv6) on (a) 16, (b) 17, (c) 18, (d) 19, (e) 20, (f) 21 December Units: PVU d 1 3 EOF EOF h 1 EOF h 2 30 N 50 N References Akahori K, Yoden S Zonal flow vacillation and bimodality of baroclinic eddy life cycles in a simple global circulation model [J]. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 (19): , doi: / (1997)054< 2349:ZFVABO>2.0.CO;2. Athanasiadis P J, Ambaum M H P Do high-frequency eddies contribute to low-frequency teleconnection tendencies? [J]. J. Atmos. Sci., 67 (2): , doi: /2009jas Barnes E A, Hartmann D L Detection of Rossby wave breaking and its response to shifts of the midlatitude jet with climate change [J]. J. Geophys. Res., 117 (D9): D09117, doi: /2012jd Benedict J J, Lee S, Feldstein S B Synoptic view of the North Atlantic oscillation [J]. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 (2): , doi: / (2004)061<0121:SVOTNA>2.0.CO;2.

12 Vol. 43 Cai M, Mak M Symbiotic relation between planetary and synopticscale waves [J]. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 (24): , doi: / (1990)047<2953:srbpas>2.0.co;2. Chang E K M, Yu D B Characteristics of wave packets in the upper troposphere. Part I: Northern Hemisphere winter [J]. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 (11): , doi: / (1999)056<1708:cowpit>2.0. CO;2. Derome J, Brunet G, Wang Y H On the potential vorticity balance on an isentropic surface during normal and anomalous winters [J]. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 (5): , doi: / (2001)129<1208: OTPVBO>2.0.CO;2.,, [J]., 26 (3): Ding Yefeng, Ren Xuejuan, Han Bo Primiary analysis of the climatic characteristics and variability of the North Pacific storm track [J]. Scientia Meteorologica Sinica (in Chinese), 26 (3): , doi: /j.issn ,, [J]., 67 (2): Fu Gang, Bi Wei, Guo Jingtian Three-dimensional structure of storm track over the North Pacific [J]. Acta Meteorologica Sinica (in Chinese), 67 (2): , doi: /j. issn: Hoskins B Potential vorticity and the PV perspective [J]. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 32 (1): 2 9, doi: /s Hoskins B J, Mcintyre M E, Robertson A W On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps [J]. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 111 (470): , doi: /qj Hoskins B J Towards a PV θ view of the general circulation [J]. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 43 (4): 27 36, doi: /tellusa.v43i Hoskins B J, Valdes P J On the existence of storm-tracks [J]. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 (15): , doi: / (1990)047<1854: OTEOST>2.0.CO;2. Kanamitsu M, Ebisuzaki W, Woollen J, et al NCEP DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2) [J]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 (11): , doi: /bams Kug J, Jin F F, Park J, et al A general rule for synoptic-eddy feedback onto low-frequency flow [J]. Climate Dyn., 35 (6): , doi: /s , [J]., 32 (4): Li Ying, Zhu Weijun Performance of different digital filters in storm track study [J]. Transactions of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 32 (4): , doi: /j.issn Liu C J, Ren X J, Yang X Q Mean flow-storm track relationship and Rossby wave breaking in two types of El-Niño [J]. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 31 (1): , doi: /s , [J]., 23 (5): Lu R Y, Huang R H Influence of the stationary disturbance in the westerlies on the blocking highs over the northeastern Asia in summer [J]. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (in Chinese), 23 (5): , doi: /j.issn Luo D H, Cha J, Zhong L H, et al A nonlinear multiscale interaction model for atmospheric blocking: The eddy-blocking matching mechanism [J]. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 140 (683): , doi: / qj Song J, Li C Y, Zhou W, et al The linkage between the Pacific North American teleconnection pattern and the North Atlantic oscillation [J]. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26 (2): , doi: /s Song J, Li C Y, Pan J, et al Climatology of anticyclonic and cyclonic rossby wave breaking on the dynamical tropopause in the Southern Hemisphere [J]. J. Climate, 24 (4): , doi: / 2010JCLI Strong C, Magnusdottir G Tropospheric Rossby wave breaking and the NAO/NAM [J]. J. Atmos. Sci., 65 (9): , doi: / 2008JAS , [J]. ( ), 38 (3): Tan Benkui, Pan Xuhui Baroclinic waves of Northern Hemisphere and Yangtze River flood in the summer of 1998 [J]. Journal of Nanjing University (Natural Sciences) (in Chinese), 38 (3): , doi: / j.issn: Thorncroft C D, Hoskins B J, Mcintyre M E Two paradigms of baroclinic-wave life-cycle behaviour [J]. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119 (509): 17 55, doi: /qj [M]. :, 276pp. Wei Fengying Modern Climatic Statistical Diagnosis and Prediction Technology (in Chinese). [M]. Beijing: China Meteorological Press, 276pp. Woollings T, Hoskins B J, Blackburn M, et al A new Rossby wave-breaking interpretation of the North Atlantic oscillation [J]. J. Atmos. Sci., 65 (2): , doi: /2007jas ,,, [J]., 52 (3): Wu G X, Liu H, Chen F, et al Transient eddy transfer and formation of blocking high On the persistently abnormal weather in the summer of 1980 [J]. Acta Meteorologica Sinica (in Chinese), 52 (3): , doi: / qxxb , [M]. :, 371pp. Wu Hongbao, Wu Lei Methods for Diagnosing and Forecasting Climate Variability (in Chinese) [M]. Beijing: China Meteorological Press, 371pp., hpa [J]., 58 (3): Zhu Weijun, Sun Zhaobo Interannual variability of northern winter Pacific storm track and its association with 500 hpa height and tropical and northern Pacific sea surface temperature [J]. Acta Meteorologica Sinica (in Chinese), 58 (3): , doi: /j.issn:

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