能源科技研究發展計畫

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1 / The Complementary Operation and Diverse Applications of Hybrid (Small-scale Wind Power and Photovoltaic) System (I) NSC 92-ET ET

2 I

3 ABSTRACT This study integrates the concepts of renewable energy exploitation, decentralized energy production and complementary operation. Diverse electricity utilization, local natural power and suitable energy exploitation are taken into consideration simultaneously when this research project is proposed. Due to the widespread aquaculture in Tainan region and high wind and solar power potential in their sites, it is worthy to carry out the technical and economic potential assessments of hybrid (small-scale wind-power and PV) electricity generators used for aquaculture in Tainan. Period (I) in this project aims at the practical installation. Appropriate scope area and its categories of aquatic products are selected. Analysis of local wind and solar power potential and diverse electricity utilizations are executed. In order to catch on the energy-saving benefit and practicability, all the planning process, installation process, operating performance and electricity production/consumption are recorded and analyzed. Period (II) is intended as the investigation of benefit and economic assessments. The backup system for low natural energy conditions, electricity utilization of different equipments, environmental impact and power quality are thoroughly implemented. Those contents are of significance especially when this hybrid system is popularized. Keywordsrenewable energy, wind power, photovoltaic, complementary operation II

4 ...I...III... V... VII AC/DC Inverter DC/AC Inverter III

5 Hybrid System Heater IV

6 GF Passat-1.4KW Hybrid AC/DC Inverter V

7 HOMER VI

8 G power curve HOMER HOMER VII

9 I 1-1 Green Power Renewable Energy Recycled Energy LNG Innovative Use of Conventional Energy IGCC 1 cost-effective decentralized production & storage of electricity 2 1

10 I OO

11 I OO / 3 3

12 I (I)(II) (m/s) (r) :00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:0 12:0 14:0 16:0 18:0 20:0 22:

13 I (II) 1-4 5

14 I I II 1-4 6

15 I 1.4 KW 0.75KW 1. A B V 1 1/

16 I New Desalinized Middle East Palestine A1-Azhar

17 I / 8 9 9

18 I Weibull Probability Distribution h(v) (k 1) k v c k v h(v) = e c c h(v) = v v = m/s k = shape parameter c = scale parameter m/s KC H 1 H 2 V 2 h = V1 h 2 1 α Friction Coefficient m/s K C

19 I ~ KW/m 2 -day KW KW

20 I 84 ( DAVIS Instruments) K G Power Curve ~17 14~17 11~14 11~14 5~7 5~ ~ ~0.8 MPPT 0.9~ ~1 0.95~0.98 Inverter 0.9~0.95 AC/DC Load Coverage 12

21 I 3. inverter 1-10 / / / 1-5 G 1.4KW 1 1KW 1 B T DC/AC Inverter 1 1 Storage battery Charging control circuit Power Conditioner DC/AC converter Connection Sys. Inverter Connection box DC load AC load

22 I 10~20 30~40 / 10% / PVC, present value of costs PVC=I+C OMR [(1+i)/(r-i)][1-((1+i)/(1+r) n )]-S((1+i)/(1+r) n )+MO

23 I Sound map A Fast l mm/sec NL-11 l0 Leq 35dB(A)~85dB(A) 1-6 RION NA-23 RION NL-11 RION LR-20 SONY TC-D5M l0 Leq (Leg1/6H) 15

24 I PCB shear mode Hz resolution threshold m/s 2,pk 14dB ceramic piezoelectric material voltage sensitivity 10 v/g line powered signal conditioner data recorder 5000 Hz FFT analyzer Hz 80 db ISO-2631/ XYZ Weighted Acceleration Sum, WAS 16

25 I 1-12 Power Quality harmonics <5 4 IEEE 587, FCC, CE 5 17

26 I 2. 1 outage, power failure, break out 2 surge, over voltage 3 under voltage, sag(under VOLTAGE, SAG, BROWN OUT) 4 EMI, spike 5 THD a Total Harmonic Distortion factor, THD 18

27 I C1 Cn, THD 2 Cn n= 2 THD (%) = x100% C1 n=3k+1 C4C7 n=3k-1 C2C5 n=3k C3C6 3. V Voltage Flickers 4. f b / channel /PT/PD(CCVT) / /CT c Tektronix THS720P METEK ACE2000 THD d 19

28 I 20

29 I

30 I

31 I KW kw m rpm micro PM mid-range PM mini PM inverter 2-3 / / 23

32 I Storage battery Charging control circuit Connection box DC load Power Conditioner / DC/AC Connection Sys. converter AC load 2-3 (II) NSC ET A B 2. GaleForce passat 1.4kW Power Curve Load Coverage 24

33 I 2-4 GF Passat-1.4KW 2-3 G power curve m/s k c (W) (kwh) (kwh) A 100% 100% 100% 207% 53% 17% 41% 13% 32% 52% 100% 100% B 65% 61% 50% 207% 53% 17% 41% 13% 32% 52% 71% 80% A 100% 100% 100% 413% 107% 33% 83% 25% 64% 104% 100% 100% B 131% 121% 100% 413% 107% 33% 83% 25% 64% 104% 141% 160% 2-3 Load Coverage A B %54.745% A B %84.549% 1.4kW 25

34 I 2.34m/s 3.75 Hybrid System KW 0.75KW 2-5 / AC/DC Inverter Storage battery Charging Controller / DC/AC Inverter 2-5 Hybrid 26

35 I ( )

36 I KW[75W/ 10 ] cm Double Roof 20cm 28

37 I Dake 8D8G( 12V 265A) V530A (Inverter) () 29

38 I KW 1.36KW (1.15KW) (0.3KW) 2.5KW 2KW 2-14 ( 2-15)

39 I FLUKE power quality analyzer 43B FLUKE teue-rms multimeter (ml) y = x (ml) 9:40 10:20 11:00 11:40 12:20 13:00 13:40 14:20 15:00 15:40 ( ) 9:40 10:20 11:00 11:40 12:20 13:00 13:40 14:20 15:00 15:

40 I 3-2 AC/DC Inverter AC/DC Inverter Inverter inverter AC/DC Inverter AC/DC Inverter AC/DC Inverter AC/DC Inverter 32

41 I 3-3 DC/AC Inverter DC/AC Inverter Inverter 92.5~

42 I y = x y = x /11/4 12: /11/5 00: /11/5 12: /11/6 00: /11/6 12: /11/7 00: /11/7 12: /11/8 00:

43 I Dewey1916 Bloom1956 Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation reaction time 1888 L. Lange

44 I a b c Likert 36

45 I e SPSS 37

46 I % 80% 60% 40% 20% % CO

47 I CO CO

48 I % 43% 0% 2. 50% 43% 7% 3. 36% 36% 29% 4. 0% 100% 0% 5. 79% 7% 14% % 0% 0% 7. 79% 0% 21% 8. 79% 0% 21% % 0% 0% 10. 7% 79% 14% % 14% 14% 40

49 I (II) NSC km NIMBY, Never In My Back Yard

50 I ? 0 57? 100? 29? 29? ? 1 29? 4 100? 29? 29? 29?

51 I e 43

52 I α 10 44

53 I 4-5 B. Litton -- (feature landscape) PV

54 I 46

55 I Hybrid System HOMER hybrid system HOMER(Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables) NRELNational Energy Laboratory, Denver, Colorado, USA HOMER HOMER NREL HOMER HOMER HOMER 5-1 HOMER 47

56 I 5-1 HOMER HOMER kwh 5-1 (5-2) ( ) A B A 0.75kW 48

57 I 5-2 HOMER HOMER HOMER ( 5-2) HOMER HOMER (hr) (kwh) HOMER (hr) () (KW) (hr) ()

58 I HOMER ( )

59 I 5-3 ( 5-3) 5-3 (KW) (hr) (l) (KW) (l) (l) (l) *

60 I 5-5 HOMER 5 40W 1 10W kWh 40W8 20W1 10W kWh ~3 5-6 HOMER 60 52

61 I HOMER W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 * 40W 5 10W 1 40W 5 10W 1 40W 8 20W 1 10W 1 ** 40W 8 20W 1 10W (KWh) () () (KWh) () *2300~100 ** 400~

62 I A W HOMER HOMER HOMER 5-9 ] (hr) HOMER (hr/day) () (KWh) 54

63 I (hr/day) () Heater B 11 3 ( ) (8-10 )

64 I HOMER HOMER KW / KW

65 I ~3kW 0.5KW KWh 14.34KWh 6.66KWh 57

66 I (28) (5-16) ( ) 1kW 3KW 1.5KW 3KW

67 I

68 I 60

69 I Clulow R., Financing for Wind Energy, Renewable Energy, Vol. 16, pp Claudsen P. D. and Wood D. H., Research and Development Issues for Small Wind Turbines, Renewable Energy, Vol. 16, pp Pottinger, L., 1999, Making Water Go Farther, World Rivers Review, Vol. 14, No d Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, 1978, Fundamentals of wind energy, Ann Arbor Science Publishers Markvart, T., 2000, Solar electricity, John Wiley & Sons Ltd

70 I Robert W. Righter, 1996, Wind Energy in American, University of Oklahoma Press. 23. Ferdi Turksoy, 1995, Investigation of Wind Power Potential at Bozcaada, Turkey, Renewable Energy, Vol. 6, No. 8, pp Shashi Persaud, Damian Flynn and Brendan Fox, 1999, Potential for Wind Generation on the Guyana Coastlands, Renewable Energy, Vol. 18, pp Mukund R. Patel, 1999, Wind and Solar Power System, CRC Press. 26. JohnF. Walker and Nicholas Jenkins, 1997, Wind energy technology, John Wiley. 27. AL-ASHWAL, A.M. and MOGHRAM, I.S., 1997, Proportion Assessment of Combined PV-Wind Generation Systems, Renewable Energy, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp McGOWAN, J.G. and MANWELL, J.F., 1999, Hybrid Wind/PV/Diesel System Experiences, Renewable Energy, Vol. 16, pp Elhadidy, M.A. and Shaahid, S.M., 1999, Feasibility of Hybrid (Wind+Solar) Power System for DHAHRAN, SAUDI ARABIA, Renewable Energy, Vol. 16, pp Siegfrid Heier, 1998, Grid integration of wind energy conversion systems, John Wiley ()

71 (I) NSC 92-ET ET Lai, C.M., Lin, T.H., Chiang, C.M., Lu, C.H., The Complementary Operation and Diverse Applications of Hybrid (Small-scale Wind Power and PV) System Used in Land Aquafarms in Taiwan, World Renewable Energy Congress VIII, Aug. 28-Sep. 3, 2004, Denver, USA. Lin, T.H., Shieh T.H., Lai C.M., Chen W.C., Technical Assessment on Combination of Small-scale Wind Power and Electricity Demand in a Land Aqua-farm in Taiwan, World Renewable Energy Congress VIII, Aug. 28-Sep. 3, 2004, Denver, USA